Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Designing Meaning Representations

Nianwen Xue, Johan Bos, William Croft, Jan Hajič, Chu-Ren Huang, Stephan Oepen, Martha Palmer, James Pustejovsky (Editors)

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Barcelona Spain (online)
Association for Computational Linguistics
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Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Designing Meaning Representations
Nianwen Xue | Johan Bos | William Croft | Jan Hajič | Chu-Ren Huang | Stephan Oepen | Martha Palmer | James Pustejovsky

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A Continuation Semantics for Abstract Meaning Representation
Kenneth Lai | Lucia Donatelli | James Pustejovsky

Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) is a simple, expressive semantic framework whose emphasis on predicate-argument structure is effective for many tasks. Nevertheless, AMR lacks a systematic treatment of projection phenomena, making its translation into logical form problematic. We present a translation function from AMR to first order logic using continuation semantics, which allows us to capture the semantic context of an expression in the form of an argument. This is a natural extension of AMR’s original design principles, allowing us to easily model basic projection phenomena such as quantification and negation as well as complex phenomena such as bound variables and donkey anaphora.

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Separating Argument Structure from Logical Structure in AMR
Johan Bos

The AMR (Abstract Meaning Representation) formalism for representing meaning of natural language sentences puts emphasis on predicate-argument structure and was not designed to deal with scope and quantifiers. By extending AMR with indices for contexts and formulating constraints on these contexts, a formalism is derived that makes correct predictions for inferences involving negation and bound variables. The attractive core predicate-argument structure of AMR is preserved. The resulting framework is similar to the meaning representations of Discourse Representation Theory employed in the Parallel Meaning Bank.

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Building Korean Abstract Meaning Representation Corpus
Hyonsu Choe | Jiyoon Han | Hyejin Park | Tae Hwan Oh | Hansaem Kim

To explore the potential sembanking in Korean and ways to represent the meaning of Korean sentences, this paper reports on the process of applying Abstract Meaning Representation to Korean, a semantic representation framework that has been studied in wide range of languages, and its output: the Korean AMR corpus. The corpus which is constructed so far is a size of 1,253 sentences and its raw texts are from ExoBrain Corpus, a state-led R&D project on language AI. This paper also analyzes the result in both qualitative and quantitative manners, proposing discussions for further development.

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Cross-lingual annotation: a road map for low- and no-resource languages
Meagan Vigus | Jens E. L. Van Gysel | Tim O’Gorman | Andrew Cowell | Rosa Vallejos | William Croft

This paper presents a “road map” for the annotation of semantic categories in typologically diverse languages, with potentially few linguistic resources, and often no existing computational resources. Past semantic annotation efforts have focused largely on high-resource languages, or relatively low-resource languages with a large number of native speakers. However, there are certain typological traits, namely the synthesis of multiple concepts into a single word, that are more common in languages with a smaller speech community. For example, what is expressed as a sentence in a more analytic language like English, may be expressed as a single word in a more synthetic language like Arapaho. This paper proposes solutions for annotating analytic and synthetic languages in a comparable way based on existing typological research, and introduces a road map for the annotation of languages with a dearth of resources.

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Refining Implicit Argument Annotation for UCCA
Ruixiang Cui | Daniel Hershcovich

Predicate-argument structure analysis is a central component in meaning representations of text. The fact that some arguments are not explicitly mentioned in a sentence gives rise to ambiguity in language understanding, and renders it difficult for machines to interpret text correctly. However, only few resources represent implicit roles for NLU, and existing studies in NLP only make coarse distinctions between categories of arguments omitted from linguistic form. This paper proposes a typology for fine-grained implicit argument annotation on top of Universal Conceptual Cognitive Annotation’s foundational layer. The proposed implicit argument categorisation is driven by theories of implicit role interpretation and consists of six types: Deictic, Generic, Genre-based, Type-identifiable, Non-specific, and Iterated-set. We exemplify our design by revisiting part of the UCCA EWT corpus, providing a new dataset annotated with the refinement layer, and making a comparative analysis with other schemes.

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K-SNACS: Annotating Korean Adposition Semantics
Jena D. Hwang | Hanwool Choe | Na-Rae Han | Nathan Schneider

While many languages use adpositions to encode semantic relationships between content words in a sentence (e.g., agentivity or temporality), the details of how adpositions work vary widely across languages with respect to both form and meaning. In this paper, we empirically adapt the SNACS framework (Schneider et al., 2018) to Korean, a language that is typologically distant from English—the language SNACS was based on. We apply the SNACS framework to annotate the highly popular novellaThe Little Prince with semantic supersense labels over allKorean postpositions. Thus, we introduce the first broad-coverage corpus annotated with Korean postposition semantics and provide a detailed analysis of the corpus with an apples-to-apples comparison between Korean and English annotations

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InfoForager: Leveraging Semantic Search with AMR for COVID-19 Research
Claire Bonial | Stephanie M. Lukin | David Doughty | Steven Hill | Clare Voss

This paper examines how Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) can be utilized for finding answers to research questions in medical scientific documents, in particular, to advance the study of UV (ultraviolet) inactivation of the novel coronavirus that causes the disease COVID-19. We describe the development of a proof-of-concept prototype tool, InfoForager, which uses AMR to conduct a semantic search, targeting the meaning of the user question, and matching this to sentences in medical documents that may contain information to answer that question. This work was conducted as a sprint over a period of six weeks, and reveals both promising results and challenges in reducing the user search time relating to COVID-19 research, and in general, domain adaption of AMR for this task.

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Semantic parsing with fuzzy meaning representations
Pavlo Kapustin | Michael Kapustin

We propose an approach and a software framework for semantic parsing of natural language sentences to discourse representation structures with use of fuzzy meaning representations such as fuzzy sets and compatibility intervals. We explain the motivation for using fuzzy meaning representations in semantic parsing and describe the design of the proposed approach and the software framework, discussing various examples. We argue that the use of fuzzy meaning representations have potential to improve understanding and reasoning capabilities of systems working with natural language.

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Representing constructional metaphors
Pavlina Kalm | Michael Regan | Sook-kyung Lee | Chris Peverada | William Croft

This paper introduces a representation and annotation scheme for argument structure constructions that are used metaphorically with verbs in different semantic domains. We aim to contribute to the study of constructional metaphors which has received little attention in theoretical and computational linguistics. The proposed representation consists of a systematic mapping between the constructional and verbal event structures in two domains. It reveals the semantic motivations that lead to constructions being metaphorically extended. We demonstrate this representation on argument structure constructions with Transfer of Possession verbs and test the viability of this scheme with an annotation exercise.