Nouha Dziri


2019

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Evaluating Coherence in Dialogue Systems using Entailment
Nouha Dziri | Ehsan Kamalloo | Kory Mathewson | Osmar Zaiane
Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Widening NLP

Evaluating open-domain dialogue systems is difficult due to the diversity of possible correct answers. Automatic metrics such as BLEU correlate weakly with human annotations, resulting in a significant bias across different models and datasets. Some researchers resort to human judgment experimentation for assessing response quality, which is expensive, time consuming, and not scalable. Moreover, judges tend to evaluate a small number of dialogues, meaning that minor differences in evaluation configuration may lead to dissimilar results. In this paper, we present interpretable metrics for evaluating topic coherence by making use of distributed sentence representations. Furthermore, we introduce calculable approximations of human judgment based on conversational coherence by adopting state-of-the-art entailment techniques. Results show that our metrics can be used as a surrogate for human judgment, making it easy to evaluate dialogue systems on large-scale datasets and allowing an unbiased estimate for the quality of the responses. This paper has been accepted in NAACL 2019.

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Augmenting Neural Response Generation with Context-Aware Topical Attention
Nouha Dziri | Ehsan Kamalloo | Kory Mathewson | Osmar Zaiane
Proceedings of the First Workshop on NLP for Conversational AI

Sequence-to-Sequence (Seq2Seq) models have witnessed a notable success in generating natural conversational exchanges. Notwithstanding the syntactically well-formed responses generated by these neural network models, they are prone to be acontextual, short and generic. In this work, we introduce a Topical Hierarchical Recurrent Encoder Decoder (THRED), a novel, fully data-driven, multi-turn response generation system intended to produce contextual and topic-aware responses. Our model is built upon the basic Seq2Seq model by augmenting it with a hierarchical joint attention mechanism that incorporates topical concepts and previous interactions into the response generation. To train our model, we provide a clean and high-quality conversational dataset mined from Reddit comments. We evaluate THRED on two novel automated metrics, dubbed Semantic Similarity and Response Echo Index, as well as with human evaluation. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed model is able to generate more diverse and contextually relevant responses compared to the strong baselines.

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Evaluating Coherence in Dialogue Systems using Entailment
Nouha Dziri | Ehsan Kamalloo | Kory Mathewson | Osmar Zaiane
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Evaluating open-domain dialogue systems is difficult due to the diversity of possible correct answers. Automatic metrics such as BLEU correlate weakly with human annotations, resulting in a significant bias across different models and datasets. Some researchers resort to human judgment experimentation for assessing response quality, which is expensive, time consuming, and not scalable. Moreover, judges tend to evaluate a small number of dialogues, meaning that minor differences in evaluation configuration may lead to dissimilar results. In this paper, we present interpretable metrics for evaluating topic coherence by making use of distributed sentence representations. Furthermore, we introduce calculable approximations of human judgment based on conversational coherence by adopting state-of-the-art entailment techniques. Results show that our metrics can be used as a surrogate for human judgment, making it easy to evaluate dialogue systems on large-scale datasets and allowing an unbiased estimate for the quality of the responses.

2018

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Automatic Dialogue Generation with Expressed Emotions
Chenyang Huang | Osmar Zaïane | Amine Trabelsi | Nouha Dziri
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Despite myriad efforts in the literature designing neural dialogue generation systems in recent years, very few consider putting restrictions on the response itself. They learn from collections of past responses and generate one based on a given utterance without considering, speech act, desired style or emotion to be expressed. In this research, we address the problem of forcing the dialogue generation to express emotion. We present three models that either concatenate the desired emotion with the source input during the learning, or push the emotion in the decoder. The results, evaluated with an emotion tagger, are encouraging with all three models, but present better outcome and promise with our model that adds the emotion vector in the decoder.