Nico Herbig


2020

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MMPE: A Multi-Modal Interface for Post-Editing Machine Translation
Nico Herbig | Tim Düwel | Santanu Pal | Kalliopi Meladaki | Mahsa Monshizadeh | Antonio Krüger | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Current advances in machine translation (MT) increase the need for translators to switch from traditional translation to post-editing (PE) of machine-translated text, a process that saves time and reduces errors. This affects the design of translation interfaces, as the task changes from mainly generating text to correcting errors within otherwise helpful translation proposals. Since this paradigm shift offers potential for modalities other than mouse and keyboard, we present MMPE, the first prototype to combine traditional input modes with pen, touch, and speech modalities for PE of MT. The results of an evaluation with professional translators suggest that pen and touch interaction are suitable for deletion and reordering tasks, while they are of limited use for longer insertions. On the other hand, speech and multi-modal combinations of select & speech are considered suitable for replacements and insertions but offer less potential for deletion and reordering. Overall, participants were enthusiastic about the new modalities and saw them as good extensions to mouse & keyboard, but not as a complete substitute.

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MMPE: A Multi-Modal Interface using Handwriting, Touch Reordering, and Speech Commands for Post-Editing Machine Translation
Nico Herbig | Santanu Pal | Tim Düwel | Kalliopi Meladaki | Mahsa Monshizadeh | Vladislav Hnatovskiy | Antonio Krüger | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

The shift from traditional translation to post-editing (PE) of machine-translated (MT) text can save time and reduce errors, but it also affects the design of translation interfaces, as the task changes from mainly generating text to correcting errors within otherwise helpful translation proposals. Since this paradigm shift offers potential for modalities other than mouse and keyboard, we present MMPE, the first prototype to combine traditional input modes with pen, touch, and speech modalities for PE of MT. Users can directly cross out or hand-write new text, drag and drop words for reordering, or use spoken commands to update the text in place. All text manipulations are logged in an easily interpretable format to simplify subsequent translation process research. The results of an evaluation with professional translators suggest that pen and touch interaction are suitable for deletion and reordering tasks, while speech and multi-modal combinations of select & speech are considered suitable for replacements and insertions. Overall, experiment participants were enthusiastic about the new modalities and saw them as useful extensions to mouse & keyboard, but not as a complete substitute.

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Improving the Multi-Modal Post-Editing (MMPE) CAT Environment based on Professional Translators’ Feedback
Nico Herbig | Santanu Pal | Tim Düwel | Raksha Shenoy | Antonio Krüger | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of 1st Workshop on Post-Editing in Modern-Day Translation

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The Transference Architecture for Automatic Post-Editing
Santanu Pal | Hongfei Xu | Nico Herbig | Sudip Kumar Naskar | Antonio Krüger | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In automatic post-editing (APE) it makes sense to condition post-editing (pe) decisions on both the source (src) and the machine translated text (mt) as input. This has led to multi-encoder based neural APE approaches. A research challenge now is the search for architectures that best support the capture, preparation and provision of src and mt information and its integration with pe decisions. In this paper we present an efficient multi-encoder based APE model, called transference. Unlike previous approaches, it (i) uses a transformer encoder block for src, (ii) followed by a decoder block, but without masking for self-attention on mt, which effectively acts as second encoder combining src –> mt, and (iii) feeds this representation into a final decoder block generating pe. Our model outperforms the best performing systems by 1 BLEU point on the WMT 2016, 2017, and 2018 English–German APE shared tasks (PBSMT and NMT). Furthermore, the results of our model on the WMT 2019 APE task using NMT data shows a comparable performance to the state-of-the-art system. The inference time of our model is similar to the vanilla transformer-based NMT system although our model deals with two separate encoders. We further investigate the importance of our newly introduced second encoder and find that a too small amount of layers does hurt the performance, while reducing the number of layers of the decoder does not matter much.

2019

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USAAR-DFKI – The Transference Architecture for English–German Automatic Post-Editing
Santanu Pal | Hongfei Xu | Nico Herbig | Antonio Krüger | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)

In this paper we present an English–German Automatic Post-Editing (APE) system called transference, submitted to the APE Task organized at WMT 2019. Our transference model is based on a multi-encoder transformer architecture. Unlike previous approaches, it (i) uses a transformer encoder block for src, (ii) followed by a transformer decoder block, but without masking, for self-attention on mt, which effectively acts as second encoder combining src –> mt, and (iii) feeds this representation into a final decoder block generating pe. Our model improves over the raw black-box neural machine translation system by 0.9 and 1.0 absolute BLEU points on the WMT 2019 APE development and test set. Our submission ranked 3rd, however compared to the two top systems, performance differences are not statistically significant.

2018

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A Transformer-Based Multi-Source Automatic Post-Editing System
Santanu Pal | Nico Herbig | Antonio Krüger | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

This paper presents our English–German Automatic Post-Editing (APE) system submitted to the APE Task organized at WMT 2018 (Chatterjee et al., 2018). The proposed model is an extension of the transformer architecture: two separate self-attention-based encoders encode the machine translation output (mt) and the source (src), followed by a joint encoder that attends over a combination of these two encoded sequences (encsrc and encmt) for generating the post-edited sentence. We compare this multi-source architecture (i.e, {src, mt} → pe) to a monolingual transformer (i.e., mt → pe) model and an ensemble combining the multi-source {src, mt} → pe and single-source mt → pe models. For both the PBSMT and the NMT task, the ensemble yields the best results, followed by the multi-source model and last the single-source approach. Our best model, the ensemble, achieves a BLEU score of 66.16 and 74.22 for the PBSMT and NMT task, respectively.