Ni Lao


2017

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Neural Symbolic Machines: Learning Semantic Parsers on Freebase with Weak Supervision
Chen Liang | Jonathan Berant | Quoc Le | Kenneth D. Forbus | Ni Lao
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Harnessing the statistical power of neural networks to perform language understanding and symbolic reasoning is difficult, when it requires executing efficient discrete operations against a large knowledge-base. In this work, we introduce a Neural Symbolic Machine, which contains (a) a neural “programmer”, i.e., a sequence-to-sequence model that maps language utterances to programs and utilizes a key-variable memory to handle compositionality (b) a symbolic “computer”, i.e., a Lisp interpreter that performs program execution, and helps find good programs by pruning the search space. We apply REINFORCE to directly optimize the task reward of this structured prediction problem. To train with weak supervision and improve the stability of REINFORCE, we augment it with an iterative maximum-likelihood training process. NSM outperforms the state-of-the-art on the WebQuestionsSP dataset when trained from question-answer pairs only, without requiring any feature engineering or domain-specific knowledge.

2015

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Learning Relational Features with Backward Random Walks
Ni Lao | Einat Minkov | William Cohen
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2012

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Reading The Web with Learned Syntactic-Semantic Inference Rules
Ni Lao | Amarnag Subramanya | Fernando Pereira | William W. Cohen
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning

2011

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Random Walk Inference and Learning in A Large Scale Knowledge Base
Ni Lao | Tom Mitchell | William W. Cohen
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing