Nazli Goharian


2020

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Attend to Medical Ontologies: Content Selection for Clinical Abstractive Summarization
Sajad Sotudeh Gharebagh | Nazli Goharian | Ross Filice
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) network is a well-established model for text summarization task. It can learn to produce readable content; however, it falls short in effectively identifying key regions of the source. In this paper, we approach the content selection problem for clinical abstractive summarization by augmenting salient ontological terms into the summarizer. Our experiments on two publicly available clinical data sets (107,372 reports of MIMIC-CXR, and 3,366 reports of OpenI) show that our model statistically significantly boosts state-of-the-art results in terms of ROUGE metrics (with improvements: 2.9% RG-1, 2.5% RG-2, 1.9% RG-L), in the healthcare domain where any range of improvement impacts patients’ welfare.

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Team DoNotDistribute at SemEval-2020 Task 11: Features, Finetuning, and Data Augmentation in Neural Models for Propaganda Detection in News Articles
Michael Kranzlein | Shabnam Behzad | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper presents our systems for SemEval 2020 Shared Task 11: Detection of Propaganda Techniques in News Articles. We participate in both the span identification and technique classification subtasks and report on experiments using different BERT-based models along with handcrafted features. Our models perform well above the baselines for both tasks, and we contribute ablation studies and discussion of our results to dissect the effectiveness of different features and techniques with the goal of aiding future studies in propaganda detection.

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GUIR at SemEval-2020 Task 12: Domain-Tuned Contextualized Models for Offensive Language Detection
Sajad Sotudeh | Tong Xiang | Hao-Ren Yao | Sean MacAvaney | Eugene Yang | Nazli Goharian | Ophir Frieder
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Offensive language detection is an important and challenging task in natural language processing. We present our submissions to the OffensEval 2020 shared task, which includes three English sub-tasks: identifying the presence of offensive language (Sub-task A), identifying the presence of target in offensive language (Sub-task B), and identifying the categories of the target (Sub-task C). Our experiments explore using a domain-tuned contextualized language model (namely, BERT) for this task. We also experiment with different components and configurations (e.g., a multi-view SVM) stacked upon BERT models for specific sub-tasks. Our submissions achieve F1 scores of 91.7% in Sub-task A, 66.5% in Sub-task B, and 63.2% in Sub-task C. We perform an ablation study which reveals that domain tuning considerably improves the classification performance. Furthermore, error analysis shows common misclassification errors made by our model and outlines research directions for future.

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GUIR @ LongSumm 2020: Learning to Generate Long Summaries from Scientific Documents
Sajad Sotudeh Gharebagh | Arman Cohan | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing

This paper presents our methods for the LongSumm 2020: Shared Task on Generating Long Summaries for Scientific Documents, where the task is to generatelong summaries given a set of scientific papers provided by the organizers. We explore 3 main approaches for this task: 1. An extractive approach using a BERT-based summarization model; 2. A two stage model that additionally includes an abstraction step using BART; and 3. A new multi-tasking approach on incorporating document structure into the summarizer. We found that our new multi-tasking approach outperforms the two other methods by large margins. Among 9 participants in the shared task, our best model ranks top according to Rouge-1 score (53.11%) while staying competitive in terms of Rouge-2.

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SLEDGE-Z: A Zero-Shot Baseline for COVID-19 Literature Search
Sean MacAvaney | Arman Cohan | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

With worldwide concerns surrounding the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there is a rapidly growing body of scientific literature on the virus. Clinicians, researchers, and policy-makers need to be able to search these articles effectively. In this work, we present a zero-shot ranking algorithm that adapts to COVID-related scientific literature. Our approach filters training data from another collection down to medical-related queries, uses a neural re-ranking model pre-trained on scientific text (SciBERT), and filters the target document collection. This approach ranks top among zero-shot methods on the TREC COVID Round 1 leaderboard, and exhibits a P@5 of 0.80 and an nDCG@10 of 0.68 when evaluated on both Round 1 and 2 judgments. Despite not relying on TREC-COVID data, our method outperforms models that do. As one of the first search methods to thoroughly evaluate COVID-19 search, we hope that this serves as a strong baseline and helps in the global crisis.

2018

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GU IRLAB at SemEval-2018 Task 7: Tree-LSTMs for Scientific Relation Classification
Sean MacAvaney | Luca Soldaini | Arman Cohan | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of The 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

SemEval 2018 Task 7 focuses on relation extraction and classification in scientific literature. In this work, we present our tree-based LSTM network for this shared task. Our approach placed 9th (of 28) for subtask 1.1 (relation classification), and 5th (of 20) for subtask 1.2 (relation classification with noisy entities). We also provide an ablation study of features included as input to the network.

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A Discourse-Aware Attention Model for Abstractive Summarization of Long Documents
Arman Cohan | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Trung Bui | Seokhwan Kim | Walter Chang | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Neural abstractive summarization models have led to promising results in summarizing relatively short documents. We propose the first model for abstractive summarization of single, longer-form documents (e.g., research papers). Our approach consists of a new hierarchical encoder that models the discourse structure of a document, and an attentive discourse-aware decoder to generate the summary. Empirical results on two large-scale datasets of scientific papers show that our model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art models.

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SMHD: a Large-Scale Resource for Exploring Online Language Usage for Multiple Mental Health Conditions
Arman Cohan | Bart Desmet | Andrew Yates | Luca Soldaini | Sean MacAvaney | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Mental health is a significant and growing public health concern. As language usage can be leveraged to obtain crucial insights into mental health conditions, there is a need for large-scale, labeled, mental health-related datasets of users who have been diagnosed with one or more of such conditions. In this paper, we investigate the creation of high-precision patterns to identify self-reported diagnoses of nine different mental health conditions, and obtain high-quality labeled data without the need for manual labelling. We introduce the SMHD (Self-reported Mental Health Diagnoses) dataset and make it available. SMHD is a novel large dataset of social media posts from users with one or multiple mental health conditions along with matched control users. We examine distinctions in users’ language, as measured by linguistic and psychological variables. We further explore text classification methods to identify individuals with mental conditions through their language.

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RSDD-Time: Temporal Annotation of Self-Reported Mental Health Diagnoses
Sean MacAvaney | Bart Desmet | Arman Cohan | Luca Soldaini | Andrew Yates | Ayah Zirikly | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology: From Keyboard to Clinic

Self-reported diagnosis statements have been widely employed in studying language related to mental health in social media. However, existing research has largely ignored the temporality of mental health diagnoses. In this work, we introduce RSDD-Time: a new dataset of 598 manually annotated self-reported depression diagnosis posts from Reddit that include temporal information about the diagnosis. Annotations include whether a mental health condition is present and how recently the diagnosis happened. Furthermore, we include exact temporal spans that relate to the date of diagnosis. This information is valuable for various computational methods to examine mental health through social media because one’s mental health state is not static. We also test several baseline classification and extraction approaches, which suggest that extracting temporal information from self-reported diagnosis statements is challenging.

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Helping or Hurting? Predicting Changes in Users’ Risk of Self-Harm Through Online Community Interactions
Luca Soldaini | Timothy Walsh | Arman Cohan | Julien Han | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology: From Keyboard to Clinic

In recent years, online communities have formed around suicide and self-harm prevention. While these communities offer support in moment of crisis, they can also normalize harmful behavior, discourage professional treatment, and instigate suicidal ideation. In this work, we focus on how interaction with others in such a community affects the mental state of users who are seeking support. We first build a dataset of conversation threads between users in a distressed state and community members offering support. We then show how to construct a classifier to predict whether distressed users are helped or harmed by the interactions in the thread, and we achieve a macro-F1 score of up to 0.69.

2017

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GUIR at SemEval-2017 Task 12: A Framework for Cross-Domain Clinical Temporal Information Extraction
Sean MacAvaney | Arman Cohan | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

Clinical TempEval 2017 (SemEval 2017 Task 12) addresses the task of cross-domain temporal extraction from clinical text. We present a system for this task that uses supervised learning for the extraction of temporal expression and event spans with corresponding attributes and narrative container relations. Approaches include conditional random fields and decision tree ensembles, using lexical, syntactic, semantic, distributional, and rule-based features. Our system received best or second best scores in TIMEX3 span, EVENT span, and CONTAINS relation extraction.

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Depression and Self-Harm Risk Assessment in Online Forums
Andrew Yates | Arman Cohan | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Users suffering from mental health conditions often turn to online resources for support, including specialized online support communities or general communities such as Twitter and Reddit. In this work, we present a framework for supporting and studying users in both types of communities. We propose methods for identifying posts in support communities that may indicate a risk of self-harm, and demonstrate that our approach outperforms strong previously proposed methods for identifying such posts. Self-harm is closely related to depression, which makes identifying depressed users on general forums a crucial related task. We introduce a large-scale general forum dataset consisting of users with self-reported depression diagnoses matched with control users. We show how our method can be applied to effectively identify depressed users from their use of language alone. We demonstrate that our method outperforms strong baselines on this general forum dataset.

2016

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Revisiting Summarization Evaluation for Scientific Articles
Arman Cohan | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Evaluation of text summarization approaches have been mostly based on metrics that measure similarities of system generated summaries with a set of human written gold-standard summaries. The most widely used metric in summarization evaluation has been the ROUGE family. ROUGE solely relies on lexical overlaps between the terms and phrases in the sentences; therefore, in cases of terminology variations and paraphrasing, ROUGE is not as effective. Scientific article summarization is one such case that is different from general domain summarization (e.g. newswire data). We provide an extensive analysis of ROUGE’s effectiveness as an evaluation metric for scientific summarization; we show that, contrary to the common belief, ROUGE is not much reliable in evaluating scientific summaries. We furthermore show how different variants of ROUGE result in very different correlations with the manual Pyramid scores. Finally, we propose an alternative metric for summarization evaluation which is based on the content relevance between a system generated summary and the corresponding human written summaries. We call our metric SERA (Summarization Evaluation by Relevance Analysis). Unlike ROUGE, SERA consistently achieves high correlations with manual scores which shows its effectiveness in evaluation of scientific article summarization.

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Effects of Sampling on Twitter Trend Detection
Andrew Yates | Alek Kolcz | Nazli Goharian | Ophir Frieder
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Much research has focused on detecting trends on Twitter, including health-related trends such as mentions of Influenza-like illnesses or their symptoms. The majority of this research has been conducted using Twitter’s public feed, which includes only about 1% of all public tweets. It is unclear if, when, and how using Twitter’s 1% feed has affected the evaluation of trend detection methods. In this work we use a larger feed to investigate the effects of sampling on Twitter trend detection. We focus on using health-related trends to estimate the prevalence of Influenza-like illnesses based on tweets. We use ground truth obtained from the CDC and Google Flu Trends to explore how the prevalence estimates degrade when moving from a 100% to a 1% sample. We find that using the 1% sample is unlikely to substantially harm ILI estimates made at the national level, but can cause poor performance when estimates are made at the city level.

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Triaging Mental Health Forum Posts
Arman Cohan | Sydney Young | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology

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GUIR at SemEval-2016 task 12: Temporal Information Processing for Clinical Narratives
Arman Cohan | Kevin Meurer | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)

2015

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Scientific Article Summarization Using Citation-Context and Article’s Discourse Structure
Arman Cohan | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Matching Citation Text and Cited Spans in Biomedical Literature: a Search-Oriented Approach
Arman Cohan | Luca Soldaini | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2014

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A Framework for Public Health Surveillance
Andrew Yates | Jon Parker | Nazli Goharian | Ophir Frieder
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

With the rapid growth of social media, there is increasing potential to augment traditional public health surveillance methods with data from social media. We describe a framework for performing public health surveillance on Twitter data. Our framework, which is publicly available, consists of three components that work together to detect health-related trends in social media: a concept extraction component for identifying health-related concepts, a concept aggregation component for identifying how the extracted health-related concepts relate to each other, and a trend detection component for determining when the aggregated health-related concepts are trending. We describe the architecture of the framework and several components that have been implemented in the framework, identify other components that could be used with the framework, and evaluate our framework on approximately 1.5 years of tweets. While it is difficult to determine how accurately a Twitter trend reflects a trend in the real world, we discuss the differences in trends detected by several different methods and compare flu trends detected by our framework to data from Google Flu Trends.