Monica Monachini


2020

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A Multilingual Evaluation Dataset for Monolingual Word Sense Alignment
Sina Ahmadi | John Philip McCrae | Sanni Nimb | Fahad Khan | Monica Monachini | Bolette Pedersen | Thierry Declerck | Tanja Wissik | Andrea Bellandi | Irene Pisani | Thomas Troelsgård | Sussi Olsen | Simon Krek | Veronika Lipp | Tamás Váradi | László Simon | András Gyorffy | Carole Tiberius | Tanneke Schoonheim | Yifat Ben Moshe | Maya Rudich | Raya Abu Ahmad | Dorielle Lonke | Kira Kovalenko | Margit Langemets | Jelena Kallas | Oksana Dereza | Theodorus Fransen | David Cillessen | David Lindemann | Mikel Alonso | Ana Salgado | José Luis Sancho | Rafael-J. Ureña-Ruiz | Jordi Porta Zamorano | Kiril Simov | Petya Osenova | Zara Kancheva | Ivaylo Radev | Ranka Stanković | Andrej Perdih | Dejan Gabrovsek
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Aligning senses across resources and languages is a challenging task with beneficial applications in the field of natural language processing and electronic lexicography. In this paper, we describe our efforts in manually aligning monolingual dictionaries. The alignment is carried out at sense-level for various resources in 15 languages. Moreover, senses are annotated with possible semantic relationships such as broadness, narrowness, relatedness, and equivalence. In comparison to previous datasets for this task, this dataset covers a wide range of languages and resources and focuses on the more challenging task of linking general-purpose language. We believe that our data will pave the way for further advances in alignment and evaluation of word senses by creating new solutions, particularly those notoriously requiring data such as neural networks. Our resources are publicly available at https://github.com/elexis-eu/MWSA.

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Proceedings of the Workshop about Language Resources for the SSH Cloud
Daan Broeder | Maria Eskevich | Monica Monachini
Proceedings of the Workshop about Language Resources for the SSH Cloud

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Social Sciences and Humanities Pathway Towards the European Open Science Cloud
Francesca Di Donato | Monica Monachini | Maria Eskevich | Stefanie Pohle | Yoann Moranville | Suzanne Dumouchel
Proceedings of the Workshop about Language Resources for the SSH Cloud

The paper presents a journey, which starts from various social sciences and humanities (SSH) Research Infrastructures in Europe and arrives at the comprehensive “ecosystem of infrastructures”, namely the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). We will highlight how the SSH Open Science infrastructures contribute to the goal of establishing the EOSC. First, through the example of OPERAS, the European Research Infrastructure for Open Scholarly Communication in the SSH, to see how its services are conceived to be part of the EOSC and to address the communities’ needs. The next two sections highlight collaboration practices between partners in Europe to build the SSH component of the EOSC and a SSH discovery platform, as a service of OPERAS and the EOSC. The last two sections will focus on an implementation network dedicated to SSH data fairification.

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LR4SSHOC: The Future of Language Resources in the Context of the Social Sciences and Humanities Open Cloud
Daan Broeder | Maria Eskevich | Monica Monachini
Proceedings of the Workshop about Language Resources for the SSH Cloud

This paper outlines the future of language resources and identifies their potential contribution for creating and sustaining the social sciences and humanities (SSH) component of the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC).

2018

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The LREC Workshops Map
Roberto Bartolini | Sara Goggi | Monica Monachini | Gabriella Pardelli
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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One Language to rule them all: modelling Morphological Patterns in a Large Scale Italian Lexicon with SWRL
Fahad Khan | Andrea Bellandi | Francesca Frontini | Monica Monachini
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

2016

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Al Qamus al Muhit, a Medieval Arabic Lexicon in LMF
Ouafae Nahli | Francesca Frontini | Monica Monachini | Fahad Khan | Arsalan Zarghili | Mustapha Khalfi
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

This paper describes the conversion into LMF, a standard lexicographic digital format of ‘al-qāmūs al-muḥīṭ, a Medieval Arabic lexicon. The lexicon is first described, then all the steps required for the conversion are illustrated. The work is will produce a useful lexicographic resource for Arabic NLP, but is also interesting per se, to study the implications of adapting the LMF model to the Arabic language. Some reflections are offered as to the status of roots with respect to previously suggested representations. In particular, roots are, in our opinion are to be not treated as lexical entries, but modeled as lexical metadata for classifying and identifying lexical entries. In this manner, each root connects all entries that are derived from it.

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LREC as a Graph: People and Resources in a Network
Riccardo Del Gratta | Francesca Frontini | Monica Monachini | Gabriella Pardelli | Irene Russo | Roberto Bartolini | Fahad Khan | Claudia Soria | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

This proposal describes a new way to visualise resources in the LREMap, a community-built repository of language resource descriptions and uses. The LREMap is represented as a force-directed graph, where resources, papers and authors are nodes. The analysis of the visual representation of the underlying graph is used to study how the community gathers around LRs and how LRs are used in research.

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Tools and Instruments for Building and Querying Diachronic Computational Lexica
Fahad Khan | Andrea Bellandi | Monica Monachini
Proceedings of the Workshop on Language Technology Resources and Tools for Digital Humanities (LT4DH)

This article describes work on enabling the addition of temporal information to senses of words in linguistic linked open data lexica based on the lemonDia model. Our contribution in this article is twofold. On the one hand, we demonstrate how lemonDia enables the querying of diachronic lexical datasets using OWL-oriented Semantic Web based technologies. On the other hand, we present a preliminary version of an interactive interface intended to help users in creating lexical datasets that model meaning change over time.

2014

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The Making of Ancient Greek WordNet
Yuri Bizzoni | Federico Boschetti | Harry Diakoff | Riccardo Del Gratta | Monica Monachini | Gregory Crane
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

This paper describes the process of creation and review of a new lexico-semantic resource for the classical studies: AncientGreekWordNet. The candidate sets of synonyms (synsets) are extracted from Greek-English dictionaries, on the assumption that Greek words translated by the same English word or phrase have a high probability of being synonyms or at least semantically closely related. The process of validation and the web interface developed to edit and query the resource are described in detail. The lexical coverage of Ancient Greek WordNet is illustrated and the accuracy is evaluated. Finally, scenarios for exploiting the resource are discussed.

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The IMAGACT Visual Ontology. An Extendable Multilingual Infrastructure for the representation of lexical encoding of Action
Massimo Moneglia | Susan Brown | Francesca Frontini | Gloria Gagliardi | Fahad Khan | Monica Monachini | Alessandro Panunzi
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

Action verbs have many meanings, covering actions in different ontological types. Moreover, each language categorizes action in its own way. One verb can refer to many different actions and one action can be identified by more than one verb. The range of variations within and across languages is largely unknown, causing trouble for natural language processing tasks. IMAGACT is a corpus-based ontology of action concepts, derived from English and Italian spontaneous speech corpora, which makes use of the universal language of images to identify the different action types extended by verbs referring to action in English, Italian, Chinese and Spanish. This paper presents the infrastructure and the various linguistic information the user can derive from it. IMAGACT makes explicit the variation of meaning of action verbs within one language and allows comparisons of verb variations within and across languages. Because the action concepts are represented with videos, extension into new languages beyond those presently implemented in IMAGACT is done using competence-based judgments by mother-tongue informants without intense lexicographic work involving underdetermined semantic description

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The Strategic Impact of META-NET on the Regional, National and International Level
Georg Rehm | Hans Uszkoreit | Sophia Ananiadou | Núria Bel | Audronė Bielevičienė | Lars Borin | António Branco | Gerhard Budin | Nicoletta Calzolari | Walter Daelemans | Radovan Garabík | Marko Grobelnik | Carmen García-Mateo | Josef van Genabith | Jan Hajič | Inma Hernáez | John Judge | Svetla Koeva | Simon Krek | Cvetana Krstev | Krister Lindén | Bernardo Magnini | Joseph Mariani | John McNaught | Maite Melero | Monica Monachini | Asunción Moreno | Jan Odijk | Maciej Ogrodniczuk | Piotr Pęzik | Stelios Piperidis | Adam Przepiórkowski | Eiríkur Rögnvaldsson | Michael Rosner | Bolette Pedersen | Inguna Skadiņa | Koenraad De Smedt | Marko Tadić | Paul Thompson | Dan Tufiş | Tamás Váradi | Andrejs Vasiļjevs | Kadri Vider | Jolanta Zabarskaite
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

This article provides an overview of the dissemination work carried out in META-NET from 2010 until early 2014; we describe its impact on the regional, national and international level, mainly with regard to politics and the situation of funding for LT topics. This paper documents the initiative’s work throughout Europe in order to boost progress and innovation in our field.

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Polysemy Index for Nouns: an Experiment on Italian using the PAROLE SIMPLE CLIPS Lexical Database
Francesca Frontini | Valeria Quochi | Sebastian Padó | Monica Monachini | Jason Utt
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

An experiment is presented to induce a set of polysemous basic type alternations (such as Animal-Food, or Building-Institution) by deriving them from the sense alternations found in an existing lexical resource. The paper builds on previous work and applies those results to the Italian lexicon PAROLE SIMPLE CLIPS. The new results show how the set of frequent type alternations that can be induced from the lexicon is partly different from the set of polysemy relations selected and explicitely applied by lexicographers when building it. The analysis of mismatches shows that frequent type alternations do not always correpond to prototypical polysemy relations, nevertheless the proposed methodology represents a useful tool offered to lexicographers to systematically check for possible gaps in their resource.

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Presenting a system of human-machine interaction for performing map tasks.
Gabriele Pallotti | Francesca Frontini | Fabio Affè | Monica Monachini | Stefania Ferrari
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

A system for human machine interaction is presented, that offers second language learners of Italian the possibility of assessing their competence by performing a map task, namely by guiding the a virtual follower through a map with written instructions in natural language. The underlying natural language processing algorithm is described, and the map authoring infrastructure is presented.

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From Synsets to Videos: Enriching ItalWordNet Multimodally
Roberto Bartolini | Valeria Quochi | Irene De Felice | Irene Russo | Monica Monachini
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

The paper describes the multimodal enrichment of ItalWordNet action verbs’ entries by means of an automatic mapping with an ontology of action types instantiated by video scenes (ImagAct). The two resources present important differences as well as interesting complementary features, such that a mapping of these two resources can lead to a an enrichment of IWN, through the connection between synsets and videos apt to illustrate the meaning described by glosses. Here, we describe an approach inspired by ontology matching methods for the automatic mapping of ImagAct video scened onto ItalWordNet sense. The experiments described in the paper are conducted on Italian, but the same methodology can be extended to other languages for which WordNets have been created, since ImagAct is done also for English, Chinese and Spanish. This source of multimodal information can be exploited to design second language learning tools, as well as for language grounding in video action recognition and potentially for robotics.

2013

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Generative Lexicon Theory and Linguistic Linked Open Data
Fahad Khan | Francesca Frontini | Riccardo Del Gratta | Monica Monachini | Valeria Quochi
Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Generative Approaches to the Lexicon (GL2013)

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Disambiguation of Basic Action Types through Nouns’ Telic Qualia
Irene Russo | Francesca Frontini | Irene De Felice | Fahad Khan | Monica Monachini
Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Generative Approaches to the Lexicon (GL2013)

2012

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The IMAGACT Cross-linguistic Ontology of Action. A new infrastructure for natural language disambiguation
Massimo Moneglia | Monica Monachini | Omar Calabrese | Alessandro Panunzi | Francesca Frontini | Gloria Gagliardi | Irene Russo
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

Action verbs, which are highly frequent in speech, cause disambiguation problems that are relevant to Language Technologies. This is a consequence of the peculiar way each natural language categorizes Action i.e. it is a consequence of semantic factors. Action verbs are frequently “general”, since they extend productively to actions belonging to different ontological types. Moreover, each language categorizes action in its own way and therefore the cross-linguistic reference to everyday activities is puzzling. This paper briefly sketches the IMAGACT project, which aims at setting up a cross-linguistic Ontology of Action for grounding disambiguation tasks in this crucial area of the lexicon. The project derives information on the actual variation of action verbs in English and Italian from spontaneous speech corpora, where references to action are high in frequency. Crucially it makes use of the universal language of images to identify action types, avoiding the underdeterminacy of semantic definitions. Action concept entries are implemented as prototypic scenes; this will make it easier to extend the Ontology to other languages.

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The FLaReNet Strategic Language Resource Agenda
Claudia Soria | Núria Bel | Khalid Choukri | Joseph Mariani | Monica Monachini | Jan Odijk | Stelios Piperidis | Valeria Quochi | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

The FLaReNet Strategic Agenda highlights the most pressing needs for the sector of Language Resources and Technologies and presents a set of recommendations for its development and progress in Europe, as issued from a three-year consultation of the FLaReNet European project. The FLaReNet recommendations are organised around nine dimensions: a) documentation b) interoperability c) availability, sharing and distribution d) coverage, quality and adequacy e) sustainability f) recognition g) development h) infrastructure and i) international cooperation. As such, they cover a broad range of topics and activities, spanning over production and use of language resources, licensing, maintenance and preservation issues, infrastructures for language resources, resource identification and sharing, evaluation and validation, interoperability and policy issues. The intended recipients belong to a large set of players and stakeholders in Language Resources and Technology, ranging from individuals to research and education institutions, to policy-makers, funding agencies, SMEs and large companies, service and media providers. The main goal of these recommendations is to serve as an instrument to support stakeholders in planning for and addressing the urgencies of the Language Resources and Technologies of the future.

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The META-SHARE Metadata Schema for the Description of Language Resources
Maria Gavrilidou | Penny Labropoulou | Elina Desipri | Stelios Piperidis | Haris Papageorgiou | Monica Monachini | Francesca Frontini | Thierry Declerck | Gil Francopoulo | Victoria Arranz | Valerie Mapelli
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

This paper presents a metadata model for the description of language resources proposed in the framework of the META-SHARE infrastructure, aiming to cover both datasets and tools/technologies used for their processing. It places the model in the overall framework of metadata models, describes the basic principles and features of the model, elaborates on the distinction between minimal and maximal versions thereof, briefly presents the integrated environment supporting the LRs description and search and retrieval processes and concludes with work to be done in the future for the improvement of the model.

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Verb interpretation for basic action types: annotation, ontology induction and creation of prototypical scenes
Francesca Frontini | Irene De Felice | Fahad Khan | Irene Russo | Monica Monachini | Gloria Gagliardi | Alessandro Panunzi
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of the Lexicon

2011

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Interoperability Framework: The FLaReNet Action Plan Proposal
Nicoletta Calzolari | Monica Monachini | Valeria Quochi
Proceedings of the Workshop on Language Resources, Technology and Services in the Sharing Paradigm

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A Metadata Schema for the Description of Language Resources (LRs)
Maria Gavrilidou | Penny Labropoulou | Stelios Piperidis | Monica Monachini | Francesca Frontini | Gil Francopoulo | Victoria Arranz | Valérie Mapelli
Proceedings of the Workshop on Language Resources, Technology and Services in the Sharing Paradigm

2010

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KYOTO: an open platform for mining facts
Piek Vossen | German Rigau | Eneko Agirre | Aitor Soroa | Monica Monachini | Roberto Bartolini
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Ontologies and Lexical Resources

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SemEval-2010 Task 17: All-Words Word Sense Disambiguation on a Specific Domain
Eneko Agirre | Oier Lopez de Lacalle | Christiane Fellbaum | Shu-Kai Hsieh | Maurizio Tesconi | Monica Monachini | Piek Vossen | Roxanne Segers
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

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Kyoto: An Integrated System for Specific Domain WSD
Aitor Soroa | Eneko Agirre | Oier Lopez de Lacalle | Wauter Bosma | Piek Vossen | Monica Monachini | Jessie Lo | Shu-Kai Hsieh
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

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An LMF-based Web Service for Accessing WordNet-type Semantic Lexicons
Bora Savas | Yoshihiko Hayashi | Monica Monachini | Claudia Soria | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

This paper describes a Web service for accessing WordNet-type semantic lexicons. The central idea behind the service design is: given a query, the primary functionality of lexicon access is to present a partial lexicon by extracting the relevant part of the target lexicon. Based on this idea, we implemented the system as a RESTful Web service whose input query is specified by the access URI and whose output is presented in a standardized XML data format. LMF, an ISO standard for modeling lexicons, plays the most prominent role: the access URI pattern basically reflects the lexicon structure as defined by LMF; the access results are rendered based on Wordnet-LMF, which is a version of LMF XML-serialization. The Web service currently provides accesses to Princeton WordNet, Japanese WordNet, as well as the EDR Electronic Dictionary as a trial. To accommodate the EDR dictionary within the same framework, we modeled it also as a WordNet-type semantic lexicon. This paper thus argues possible alternatives to model innately bilingual/multilingual lexicons like EDR with LMF, and proposes possible revisions to Wordnet-LMF.

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An Automatically Built Named Entity Lexicon for Arabic
Mohammed Attia | Antonio Toral | Lamia Tounsi | Monica Monachini | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

We have adapted and extended the automatic Multilingual, Interoperable Named Entity Lexicon approach to Arabic, using Arabic WordNet (AWN) and Arabic Wikipedia (AWK). First, we extract AWN’s instantiable nouns and identify the corresponding categories and hyponym subcategories in AWK. Then, we exploit Wikipedia inter-lingual links to locate correspondences between articles in ten different languages in order to identify Named Entities (NEs). We apply keyword search on AWK abstracts to provide for Arabic articles that do not have a correspondence in any of the other languages. In addition, we perform a post-processing step to fetch further NEs from AWK not reachable through AWN. Finally, we investigate diacritization using matching with geonames databases, MADA-TOKAN tools and different heuristics for restoring vowel marks of Arabic NEs. Using this methodology, we have extracted approximately 45,000 Arabic NEs and built, to the best of our knowledge, the largest, most mature and well-structured Arabic NE lexical resource to date. We have stored and organised this lexicon following the LMF ISO standard. We conduct a quantitative and qualitative evaluation against a manually annotated gold standard and achieve precision scores from 95.83% (with 66.13% recall) to 99.31% (with 61.45% recall) according to different values of a threshold.

2009

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Query Expansion using LMF-Compliant Lexical Resources
Takenobu Tokunaga | Dain Kaplan | Nicoletta Calzolari | Monica Monachini | Claudia Soria | Virach Sornlertlamvanich | Thatsanee Charoenporn | Yingju Xia | Chu-Ren Huang | Shu-Kai Hsieh | Kiyoaki Shirai
Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Asian Language Resources (ALR7)

2008

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Named Entity WordNet
Antonio Toral | Rafael Muñoz | Monica Monachini
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

This paper presents the automatic extension of Princeton WordNet with Named Entities (NEs). This new resource is called Named Entity WordNet. Our method maps the noun is-a hierarchy of WordNet to Wikipedia categories, identifies the NEs present in the latter and extracts different information from them such as written variants, definitions, etc. This information is inserted into a NE repository. A module that converts from this generic repository to the WordNet specific format has been developed. The paper explores different aspects of our methodology such as the treatment of polysemous terms, the identification of hyponyms within the Wikipedia categorization system, the identification of Wikipedia articles which are NEs and the design of a NE repository compliant with the LMF ISO standard. So far, this procedure enriches WordNet with 310,742 NEs and 381,043 “instance of” relations.

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A lexicon for biology and bioinformatics: the BOOTStrep experience.
Valeria Quochi | Monica Monachini | Riccardo Del Gratta | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

This paper describes the design, implementation and population of a lexical resource for biology and bioinformatics (the BioLexicon) developed within an ongoing European project. The aim of this project is text-based knowledge harvesting for support to information extraction and text mining in the biomedical domain. The BioLexicon is a large-scale lexical-terminological resource encoding different information types in one single integrated resource. In the design of the resource we follow the ISO/DIS 24613 “Lexical Mark-up Framework” standard, which ensures reusability of the information encoded and easy exchange of both data and architecture. The design of the resource also takes into account the needs of our text mining partners who automatically extract syntactic and semantic information from texts and feed it to the lexicon. The present contribution first describes in detail the model of the BioLexicon along its three main layers: morphology, syntax and semantics; then, it briefly describes the database implementation of the model and the population strategy followed within the project, together with an example. The BioLexicon database in fact comes equipped with automatic uploading procedures based on a common exchange XML format, which guarantees that the lexicon can be properly populated with data coming from different sources.

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KYOTO: a System for Mining, Structuring and Distributing Knowledge across Languages and Cultures
Piek Vossen | Eneko Agirre | Nicoletta Calzolari | Christiane Fellbaum | Shu-kai Hsieh | Chu-Ren Huang | Hitoshi Isahara | Kyoko Kanzaki | Andrea Marchetti | Monica Monachini | Federico Neri | Remo Raffaelli | German Rigau | Maurizio Tescon | Joop VanGent
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

We outline work performed within the framework of a current EC project. The goal is to construct a language-independent information system for a specific domain (environment/ecology/biodiversity) anchored in a language-independent ontology that is linked to wordnets in seven languages. For each language, information extraction and identification of lexicalized concepts with ontological entries is carried out by text miners (“Kybots”). The mapping of language-specific lexemes to the ontology allows for crosslinguistic identification and translation of equivalent terms. The infrastructure developed within this project enables long-range knowledge sharing and transfer across many languages and cultures, addressing the need for global and uniform transition of knowledge beyond the specific domains addressed here.

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Adapting International Standard for Asian Language Technologies
Takenobu Tokunaga | Dain Kaplan | Chu-Ren Huang | Shu-Kai Hsieh | Nicoletta Calzolari | Monica Monachini | Claudia Soria | Kiyoaki Shirai | Virach Sornlertlamvanich | Thatsanee Charoenporn | YingJu Xia
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

Corpus-based approaches and statistical approaches have been the main stream of natural language processing research for the past two decades. Language resources play a key role in such approaches, but there is an insufficient amount of language resources in many Asian languages. In this situation, standardisation of language resources would be of great help in developing resources in new languages. This paper presents the latest development efforts of our project which aims at creating a common standard for Asian language resources that is compatible with an international standard. In particular, the paper focuses on i) lexical specification and data categories relevant for building multilingual lexical resources for Asian languages; ii) a core upper-layer ontology needed for ensuring multilingual interoperability and iii) the evaluation platform used to test the entire architectural framework.

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UFRA: a UIMA-based Approach to Federated Language Resource Architecture
Riccardo Del Gratta | Roberto Bartolini | Tommaso Caselli | Monica Monachini | Claudia Soria | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

In this paper we address the issue of developing an interoperable infrastructure for language resources and technologies. In our approach, called UFRA, we extend the Federate Database Architecture System adding typical functionalities caming from UIMA. In this way, we capitalize the advantages of a federated architecture, such as autonomy, heterogeneity and distribution of components, monitored by a central authority responsible for checking both the integration of components and user rights on performing different tasks. We use the UIMA approach to manage and define one common front-end, enabling users and clients to query, retrieve and use language resources and technologies. The purpose of this paper is to show how UIMA leads from a Federated Database Architecture to a Federated Resource Architecture, adding to a registry of available components both static resources such as lexicons and corpora and dynamic ones such as tools and general purpose language technologies. At the end of the paper, we present a case-study that adopts this framework to integrate the SIMPLE lexicon and TIMEML annotation guidelines to tag natural language texts.

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Ontologizing Lexicon Access Functions based on an LMF-based Lexicon Taxonomy
Yoshihiko Hayashi | Chiharu Narawa | Monica Monachini | Claudia Soria | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

This paper discusses ontologization of lexicon access functions in the context of a service-oriented language infrastructure, such as the Language Grid. In such a language infrastructure, an access function to a lexical resource, embodied as an atomic Web service, plays a crucially important role in composing a composite Web service tailored to a user’s specific requirement. To facilitate the composition process involving service discovery, planning and invocation, the language infrastructure should be ontology-based; hence the ontologization of a range of lexicon functions is highly required. In a service-oriented environment, lexical resources however can be classified from a service-oriented perspective rather than from a lexicographically motivated standard. Hence to address the issue of interoperability, the taxonomy for lexical resources should be ground to principled and shared lexicon ontology. To do this, we have ontologized the standardized lexicon modeling framework LMF, and utilized it as a foundation to stipulate the service-oriented lexicon taxonomy and the corresponding ontology for lexicon access functions. This paper also examines a possible solution to fill the gap between the ontological descriptions and the actual Web service API by adopting a W3C recommendation SAWSDL, with which Web service descriptions can be linked with the domain ontology.

2006

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Infrastructure for Standardization of Asian Language Resources
Takenobu Tokunaga | Virach Sornlertlamvanich | Thatsanee Charoenporn | Nicoletta Calzolari | Monica Monachini | Claudia Soria | Chu-Ren Huang | YingJu Xia | Hao Yu | Laurent Prevot | Kiyoaki Shirai
Proceedings of the COLING/ACL 2006 Main Conference Poster Sessions

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LeXFlow: A System for Cross-Fertilization of Computational Lexicons
Maurizio Tesconi | Andrea Marchetti | Francesca Bertagna | Monica Monachini | Claudia Soria | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the COLING/ACL 2006 Interactive Presentation Sessions

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Unified Lexicon and Unified Morphosyntactic Specifications for Written and Spoken Italian
Monica Monachini | Nicoletta Calzolari | Khalid Choukri | Jochen Friedrich | Giulio Maltese | Michele Mammini | Jan Odijk | Marisa Ulivieri
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

The goal of this paper is (1) to illustrate a specific procedure for merging different monolingual lexicons, focussing on techniques for detecting and mapping equivalent lexical entries, and (2) to sketch a production model that enables one to obtain lexical resources via unification of existing data. We describe the creation of a Unified Lexicon (UL) from a common sample of the Italian PAROLE-SIMPLE-CLIPS phonological lexicon and of the Italian LCSTAR pronunciation lexicon. We expand previous experiments carried out at ILC-CNR: based on a detailed mechanism for mapping grammatical classifications of candidate UL entries, a consensual set of Unified Morphosyntactic Specifications (UMS) shared by lexica for the written and spoken areas is proposed. The impact of the UL on cross-validation issues is analysed: by looking into conflicts, mismatches and diverging classifications can be detected in both resources. The work presented is in line with the activities promoted by ELRA towards the development of methods for packaging new language resources by combining independently created resources, and was carried out as part of the ELRA Production Committee activities. ELRA aims to exploit the UL experience to carry out such merging activities for resources available on the ELRA catalogue in order to fulfill the users' needs.

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Moving to dynamic computational lexicons with LeXFlow
Claudia Soria | Maurizio Tesconi | Francesca Bertagna | Nicoletta Calzolari | Andrea Marchetti | Monica Monachini
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

In this paper we present LeXFlow, a web application framework where lexicons already expressed in standardised format semi-automatically interact by reciprocally enriching themselves. LeXFlow is intended for, on the one hand, paving the way to the development of dynamic multi-source lexicons; and on the other, for fostering the adoption of standards. Borrowing from techniques used in the domain of document workflows, we model the activity of lexicon management as a particular case of workflow instance, where lexical entries move across agents and become dynamically updated. To this end, we have designed a lexical flow (LF) corresponding to the scenario where an entry of a lexicon A becomes enriched via basically two steps. First, by virtue of being mapped onto a corresponding entry belonging to a lexicon B, the entry(LA) inherits the semantic relations available in lexicon B. Second, by resorting to an automatic application that acquires information about semantic relations from corpora, the relations acquired are integrated into the entry and proposed to the human encoder. As a result of the lexical flow, in addition, for each starting lexical entry(LA) mapped onto a corresponding entry(LB) the flow produces a new entry representing the merging of the original two.

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Language Resources Production Models: the Case of the INTERA Multilingual Corpus and Terminology
Maria Gavrilidou | Penny Labropoulou | Stelios Piperidis | Voula Giouli | Nicoletta Calzolari | Monica Monachini | Claudia Soria | Khalid Choukri
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

This paper reports on the multilingual Language Resources (MLRs), i.e. parallel corpora and terminological lexicons for less widely digitally available languages, that have been developed in the INTERA project and the methodology adopted for their production. Special emphasis is given to the reality factors that have influenced the MLRs development approach and their final constitution. Building on the experience gained in the project, a production model has been elaborated, suggesting ways and techniques that can be exploited in order to improve LRs production taking into account realistic issues.

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Lexical Markup Framework (LMF)
Gil Francopoulo | Monte George | Nicoletta Calzolari | Monica Monachini | Nuria Bel | Mandy Pet | Claudia Soria
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

Optimizing the production, maintenance and extension of lexical resources is one the crucial aspects impacting Natural Language Processing (NLP). A second aspect involves optimizing the process leading to their integration in applications. With this respect, we believe that the production of a consensual specification on lexicons can be a useful aid for the various NLP actors. Within ISO, the purpose of LMF is to define a standard for lexicons. LMF is a model that provides a common standardized framework for the construction of NLP lexicons. The goals of LMF are to provide a common model for the creation and use of lexical resources, to manage the exchange of data between and among these resources, and to enable the merging of large number of individual electronic resources to form extensive global electronic resources. In this paper, we describe the work in progress within the sub-group ISO-TC37/SC4/WG4. Various experts from a lot of countries have been consulted in order to take into account best practices in a lot of languages for (we hope) all kinds of NLP lexicons.

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Next Generation Language Resources using Grid
Federico Calzolari | Eva Sassolini | Manuela Sassi | Sebastiana Cucurullo | Eugenio Picchi | Francesca Bertagna | Alessandro Enea | Monica Monachini | Claudia Soria | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

This paper presents a case study concerning the challenges and requirements posed by next generation language resources, realized as an overall model of open, distributed and collaborative language infrastructure. If a sort of “new paradigm” for language resource sharing is required, we think that the emerging and still evolving technology connected to Grid computing is a very interesting and suitable one for a concrete realization of this vision. Given the current limitations of Grid computing, it is very important to test the new environment on basic language analysis tools, in order to get the feeling of what are the potentialities and possible limitations connected to its use in NLP. For this reason, we have done some experiments on a module of the Linguistic Miner, i.e. the extraction of linguistic patterns from restricted domain corpora. The Grid environment has produced the expected results (reduction of the processing time, huge storage capacity, data redundancy) without any additional cost for the final user.

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Lexical Markup Framework (LMF) for NLP Multilingual Resources
Gil Francopoulo | Nuria Bel | Monte George | Nicoletta Calzolari | Monica Monachini | Mandy Pet | Claudia Soria
Proceedings of the Workshop on Multilingual Language Resources and Interoperability

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Towards Agent-based Cross-Lingual Interoperability of Distributed Lexical Resources
Claudia Soria | Maurizio Tesconi | Andrea Marchetti | Francesca Bertagna | Monica Monachini | Chu-Ren Huang | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the Workshop on Multilingual Language Resources and Interoperability

2004

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ENABLER Thematic Network of National Projects: Technical, Strategic and Political Issues of LRs
Nicoletta Calzolari | Khalid Choukri | Maria Gavrilidou | Bente Maegaard | Paola Baroni | Hanne Fersøe | Alessandro Lenci | Valérie Mapelli | Monica Monachini | Stelios Piperidis
Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’04)

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ELRA Validation Methodology and Standard Promotion for Linguistic Resources
Hanne Fersøe | Monica Monachini
Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’04)

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Unifying Lexicons in view of a Phonological and Morphological Lexical DB
Monica Monachini | Federico Calzolari | Michele Mammini | Sergio Rossi | Marisa Ulivieri
Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’04)

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Content Interoperability of Lexical Resources: Open Issues and “MILE” Perspectives
Francesca Bertagna | Alessandro Lenci | Monica Monachini | Nicoletta Calzolari
Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’04)

2002

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CLIPS, a Multi-level Italian Computational Lexicon: a Glimpse to Data
Nilda Ruimy | Monica Monachini | Raffaella Distante | Elisabetta Guazzini | Stefano Molino | Marisa Ulivieri | Nicoletta Calzolari | Antonio Zampolli
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’02)

2000

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SIMPLE: A General Framework for the Development of Multilingual Lexicons
Nuria Bel | Federica Busa | Nicoletta Calzolari | Elisabetta Gola | Alessandro Lenci | Monica Monachini | Antoine Ogonowski | Ivonne Peters | Wim Peters | Nilda Ruimy | Marta Villegas | Antonio Zampolli
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’00)

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