Milica Gasic

Also published as: Milica Gašić


2020

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Actor-Double-Critic: Incorporating Model-Based Critic for Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems
Yen-chen Wu | Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Milica Gasic
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In order to improve the sample-efficiency of deep reinforcement learning (DRL), we implemented imagination augmented agent (I2A) in spoken dialogue systems (SDS). Although I2A achieves a higher success rate than baselines by augmenting predicted future into a policy network, its complicated architecture introduces unwanted instability. In this work, we propose actor-double-critic (ADC) to improve the stability and overall performance of I2A. ADC simplifies the architecture of I2A to reduce excessive parameters and hyper-parameters. More importantly, a separate model-based critic shares parameters between actions and makes back-propagation explicit. In our experiments on Cambridge Restaurant Booking task, ADC enhances success rates considerably and shows robustness to imperfect environment models. In addition, ADC exhibits the stability and sample-efficiency as significantly reducing the baseline standard deviation of success rates and reaching the 80% success rate with half training data.

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Knowing What You Know: Calibrating Dialogue Belief State Distributions via Ensembles
Carel van Niekerk | Michael Heck | Christian Geishauser | Hsien-chin Lin | Nurul Lubis | Marco Moresi | Milica Gasic
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

The ability to accurately track what happens during a conversation is essential for the performance of a dialogue system. Current state-of-the-art multi-domain dialogue state trackers achieve just over 55% accuracy on the current go-to benchmark, which means that in almost every second dialogue turn they place full confidence in an incorrect dialogue state. Belief trackers, on the other hand, maintain a distribution over possible dialogue states. However, they lack in performance compared to dialogue state trackers, and do not produce well calibrated distributions. In this work we present state-of-the-art performance in calibration for multi-domain dialogue belief trackers using a calibrated ensemble of models. Our resulting dialogue belief tracker also outperforms previous dialogue belief tracking models in terms of accuracy.

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LAVA: Latent Action Spaces via Variational Auto-encoding for Dialogue Policy Optimization
Nurul Lubis | Christian Geishauser | Michael Heck | Hsien-chin Lin | Marco Moresi | Carel van Niekerk | Milica Gasic
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Reinforcement learning (RL) can enable task-oriented dialogue systems to steer the conversation towards successful task completion. In an end-to-end setting, a response can be constructed in a word-level sequential decision making process with the entire system vocabulary as action space. Policies trained in such a fashion do not require expert-defined action spaces, but they have to deal with large action spaces and long trajectories, making RL impractical. Using the latent space of a variational model as action space alleviates this problem. However, current approaches use an uninformed prior for training and optimize the latent distribution solely on the context. It is therefore unclear whether the latent representation truly encodes the characteristics of different actions. In this paper, we explore three ways of leveraging an auxiliary task to shape the latent variable distribution: via pre-training, to obtain an informed prior, and via multitask learning. We choose response auto-encoding as the auxiliary task, as this captures the generative factors of dialogue responses while requiring low computational cost and neither additional data nor labels. Our approach yields a more action-characterized latent representations which support end-to-end dialogue policy optimization and achieves state-of-the-art success rates. These results warrant a more wide-spread use of RL in end-to-end dialogue models.

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Out-of-Task Training for Dialog State Tracking Models
Michael Heck | Christian Geishauser | Hsien-chin Lin | Nurul Lubis | Marco Moresi | Carel van Niekerk | Milica Gasic
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Dialog state tracking (DST) suffers from severe data sparsity. While many natural language processing (NLP) tasks benefit from transfer learning and multi-task learning, in dialog these methods are limited by the amount of available data and by the specificity of dialog applications. In this work, we successfully utilize non-dialog data from unrelated NLP tasks to train dialog state trackers. This opens the door to the abundance of unrelated NLP corpora to mitigate the data sparsity issue inherent to DST.

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TripPy: A Triple Copy Strategy for Value Independent Neural Dialog State Tracking
Michael Heck | Carel van Niekerk | Nurul Lubis | Christian Geishauser | Hsien-Chin Lin | Marco Moresi | Milica Gasic
Proceedings of the 21th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

Task-oriented dialog systems rely on dialog state tracking (DST) to monitor the user’s goal during the course of an interaction. Multi-domain and open-vocabulary settings complicate the task considerably and demand scalable solutions. In this paper we present a new approach to DST which makes use of various copy mechanisms to fill slots with values. Our model has no need to maintain a list of candidate values. Instead, all values are extracted from the dialog context on-the-fly. A slot is filled by one of three copy mechanisms: (1) Span prediction may extract values directly from the user input; (2) a value may be copied from a system inform memory that keeps track of the system’s inform operations (3) a value may be copied over from a different slot that is already contained in the dialog state to resolve coreferences within and across domains. Our approach combines the advantages of span-based slot filling methods with memory methods to avoid the use of value picklists altogether. We argue that our strategy simplifies the DST task while at the same time achieving state of the art performance on various popular evaluation sets including Multiwoz 2.1, where we achieve a joint goal accuracy beyond 55%.

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Topology of Word Embeddings: Singularities Reflect Polysemy
Alexander Jakubowski | Milica Gasic | Marcus Zibrowius
Proceedings of the Ninth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics

The manifold hypothesis suggests that word vectors live on a submanifold within their ambient vector space. We argue that we should, more accurately, expect them to live on a <i>pinched</i> manifold: a singular quotient of a manifold obtained by identifying some of its points. The identified, singular points correspond to polysemous words, i.e. words with multiple meanings. Our point of view suggests that monosemous and polysemous words can be distinguished based on the topology of their neighbourhoods. We present two kinds of empirical evidence to support this point of view: (1) We introduce a topological measure of polysemy based on persistent homology that correlates well with the actual number of meanings of a word. (2) We propose a simple, topologically motivated solution to the SemEval-2010 task on <i>Word Sense Induction & Disambiguation</i> that produces competitive results.

2019

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Proceedings of the 20th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue
Satoshi Nakamura | Milica Gasic | Ingrid Zuckerman | Gabriel Skantze | Mikio Nakano | Alexandros Papangelis | Stefan Ultes | Koichiro Yoshino
Proceedings of the 20th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

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Tree-Structured Semantic Encoder with Knowledge Sharing for Domain Adaptation in Natural Language Generation
Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Paweł Budzianowski | Yen-chen Wu | Milica Gasic
Proceedings of the 20th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

Domain adaptation in natural language generation (NLG) remains challenging because of the high complexity of input semantics across domains and limited data of a target domain. This is particularly the case for dialogue systems, where we want to be able to seamlessly include new domains into the conversation. Therefore, it is crucial for generation models to share knowledge across domains for the effective adaptation from one domain to another. In this study, we exploit a tree-structured semantic encoder to capture the internal structure of complex semantic representations required for multi-domain dialogues in order to facilitate knowledge sharing across domains. In addition, a layer-wise attention mechanism between the tree encoder and the decoder is adopted to further improve the model’s capability. The automatic evaluation results show that our model outperforms previous methods in terms of the BLEU score and the slot error rate, in particular when the adaptation data is limited. In subjective evaluation, human judges tend to prefer the sentences generated by our model, rating them more highly on informativeness and naturalness than other systems.

2018

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Feudal Reinforcement Learning for Dialogue Management in Large Domains
Iñigo Casanueva | Paweł Budzianowski | Pei-Hao Su | Stefan Ultes | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Reinforcement learning (RL) is a promising approach to solve dialogue policy optimisation. Traditional RL algorithms, however, fail to scale to large domains due to the curse of dimensionality. We propose a novel Dialogue Management architecture, based on Feudal RL, which decomposes the decision into two steps; a first step where a master policy selects a subset of primitive actions, and a second step where a primitive action is chosen from the selected subset. The structural information included in the domain ontology is used to abstract the dialogue state space, taking the decisions at each step using different parts of the abstracted state. This, combined with an information sharing mechanism between slots, increases the scalability to large domains. We show that an implementation of this approach, based on Deep-Q Networks, significantly outperforms previous state of the art in several dialogue domains and environments, without the need of any additional reward signal.

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MultiWOZ - A Large-Scale Multi-Domain Wizard-of-Oz Dataset for Task-Oriented Dialogue Modelling
Paweł Budzianowski | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Iñigo Casanueva | Stefan Ultes | Osman Ramadan | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Even though machine learning has become the major scene in dialogue research community, the real breakthrough has been blocked by the scale of data available.To address this fundamental obstacle, we introduce the Multi-Domain Wizard-of-Oz dataset (MultiWOZ), a fully-labeled collection of human-human written conversations spanning over multiple domains and topics.At a size of 10k dialogues, it is at least one order of magnitude larger than all previous annotated task-oriented corpora.The contribution of this work apart from the open-sourced dataset is two-fold:firstly, a detailed description of the data collection procedure along with a summary of data structure and analysis is provided. The proposed data-collection pipeline is entirely based on crowd-sourcing without the need of hiring professional annotators;secondly, a set of benchmark results of belief tracking, dialogue act and response generation is reported, which shows the usability of the data and sets a baseline for future studies.

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Large-Scale Multi-Domain Belief Tracking with Knowledge Sharing
Osman Ramadan | Paweł Budzianowski | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Robust dialogue belief tracking is a key component in maintaining good quality dialogue systems. The tasks that dialogue systems are trying to solve are becoming increasingly complex, requiring scalability to multi-domain, semantically rich dialogues. However, most current approaches have difficulty scaling up with domains because of the dependency of the model parameters on the dialogue ontology. In this paper, a novel approach is introduced that fully utilizes semantic similarity between dialogue utterances and the ontology terms, allowing the information to be shared across domains. The evaluation is performed on a recently collected multi-domain dialogues dataset, one order of magnitude larger than currently available corpora. Our model demonstrates great capability in handling multi-domain dialogues, simultaneously outperforming existing state-of-the-art models in single-domain dialogue tracking tasks.

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Neural User Simulation for Corpus-based Policy Optimisation of Spoken Dialogue Systems
Florian Kreyssig | Iñigo Casanueva | Paweł Budzianowski | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the 19th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

User Simulators are one of the major tools that enable offline training of task-oriented dialogue systems. For this task the Agenda-Based User Simulator (ABUS) is often used. The ABUS is based on hand-crafted rules and its output is in semantic form. Issues arise from both properties such as limited diversity and the inability to interface a text-level belief tracker. This paper introduces the Neural User Simulator (NUS) whose behaviour is learned from a corpus and which generates natural language, hence needing a less labelled dataset than simulators generating a semantic output. In comparison to much of the past work on this topic, which evaluates user simulators on corpus-based metrics, we use the NUS to train the policy of a reinforcement learning based Spoken Dialogue System. The NUS is compared to the ABUS by evaluating the policies that were trained using the simulators. Cross-model evaluation is performed i.e. training on one simulator and testing on the other. Furthermore, the trained policies are tested on real users. In both evaluation tasks the NUS outperformed the ABUS.

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Addressing Objects and Their Relations: The Conversational Entity Dialogue Model
Stefan Ultes | Paweł Budzianowski | Iñigo Casanueva | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Yen-Chen Wu | Steve Young | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the 19th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

Statistical spoken dialogue systems usually rely on a single- or multi-domain dialogue model that is restricted in its capabilities of modelling complex dialogue structures, e.g., relations. In this work, we propose a novel dialogue model that is centred around entities and is able to model relations as well as multiple entities of the same type. We demonstrate in a prototype implementation benefits of relation modelling on the dialogue level and show that a trained policy using these relations outperforms the multi-domain baseline. Furthermore, we show that by modelling the relations on the dialogue level, the system is capable of processing relations present in the user input and even learns to address them in the system response.

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Feudal Dialogue Management with Jointly Learned Feature Extractors
Iñigo Casanueva | Paweł Budzianowski | Stefan Ultes | Florian Kreyssig | Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Yen-chen Wu | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the 19th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

Reinforcement learning (RL) is a promising dialogue policy optimisation approach, but traditional RL algorithms fail to scale to large domains. Recently, Feudal Dialogue Management (FDM), has shown to increase the scalability to large domains by decomposing the dialogue management decision into two steps, making use of the domain ontology to abstract the dialogue state in each step. In order to abstract the state space, however, previous work on FDM relies on handcrafted feature functions. In this work, we show that these feature functions can be learned jointly with the policy model while obtaining similar performance, even outperforming the handcrafted features in several environments and domains.

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Variational Cross-domain Natural Language Generation for Spoken Dialogue Systems
Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Florian Kreyssig | Paweł Budzianowski | Iñigo Casanueva | Yen-Chen Wu | Stefan Ultes | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the 19th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

Cross-domain natural language generation (NLG) is still a difficult task within spoken dialogue modelling. Given a semantic representation provided by the dialogue manager, the language generator should generate sentences that convey desired information. Traditional template-based generators can produce sentences with all necessary information, but these sentences are not sufficiently diverse. With RNN-based models, the diversity of the generated sentences can be high, however, in the process some information is lost. In this work, we improve an RNN-based generator by considering latent information at the sentence level during generation using conditional variational auto-encoder architecture. We demonstrate that our model outperforms the original RNN-based generator, while yielding highly diverse sentences. In addition, our model performs better when the training data is limited.

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Deep learning for language understanding of mental health concepts derived from Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Yinpei Dai | Clare Mansfield | Osman Ramadan | Stefan Ultes | Michael Crawford | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis

In recent years, we have seen deep learning and distributed representations of words and sentences make impact on a number of natural language processing tasks, such as similarity, entailment and sentiment analysis. Here we introduce a new task: understanding of mental health concepts derived from Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). We define a mental health ontology based on the CBT principles, annotate a large corpus where this phenomena is exhibited and perform understanding using deep learning and distributed representations. Our results show that the performance of deep learning models combined with word embeddings or sentence embeddings significantly outperform non-deep-learning models in this difficult task. This understanding module will be an essential component of a statistical dialogue system delivering therapy.

2017

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PyDial: A Multi-domain Statistical Dialogue System Toolkit
Stefan Ultes | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Pei-Hao Su | David Vandyke | Dongho Kim | Iñigo Casanueva | Paweł Budzianowski | Nikola Mrkšić | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Milica Gašić | Steve Young
Proceedings of ACL 2017, System Demonstrations

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A Network-based End-to-End Trainable Task-oriented Dialogue System
Tsung-Hsien Wen | David Vandyke | Nikola Mrkšić | Milica Gašić | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Pei-Hao Su | Stefan Ultes | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

Teaching machines to accomplish tasks by conversing naturally with humans is challenging. Currently, developing task-oriented dialogue systems requires creating multiple components and typically this involves either a large amount of handcrafting, or acquiring costly labelled datasets to solve a statistical learning problem for each component. In this work we introduce a neural network-based text-in, text-out end-to-end trainable goal-oriented dialogue system along with a new way of collecting dialogue data based on a novel pipe-lined Wizard-of-Oz framework. This approach allows us to develop dialogue systems easily and without making too many assumptions about the task at hand. The results show that the model can converse with human subjects naturally whilst helping them to accomplish tasks in a restaurant search domain.

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Semantic Specialization of Distributional Word Vector Spaces using Monolingual and Cross-Lingual Constraints
Nikola Mrkšić | Ivan Vulić | Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Ira Leviant | Roi Reichart | Milica Gašić | Anna Korhonen | Steve Young
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 5

We present Attract-Repel, an algorithm for improving the semantic quality of word vectors by injecting constraints extracted from lexical resources. Attract-Repel facilitates the use of constraints from mono- and cross-lingual resources, yielding semantically specialized cross-lingual vector spaces. Our evaluation shows that the method can make use of existing cross-lingual lexicons to construct high-quality vector spaces for a plethora of different languages, facilitating semantic transfer from high- to lower-resource ones. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated with state-of-the-art results on semantic similarity datasets in six languages. We next show that Attract-Repel-specialized vectors boost performance in the downstream task of dialogue state tracking (DST) across multiple languages. Finally, we show that cross-lingual vector spaces produced by our algorithm facilitate the training of multilingual DST models, which brings further performance improvements.

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Reward-Balancing for Statistical Spoken Dialogue Systems using Multi-objective Reinforcement Learning
Stefan Ultes | Paweł Budzianowski | Iñigo Casanueva | Nikola Mrkšić | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Pei-Hao Su | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Milica Gašić | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 18th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

Reinforcement learning is widely used for dialogue policy optimization where the reward function often consists of more than one component, e.g., the dialogue success and the dialogue length. In this work, we propose a structured method for finding a good balance between these components by searching for the optimal reward component weighting. To render this search feasible, we use multi-objective reinforcement learning to significantly reduce the number of training dialogues required. We apply our proposed method to find optimized component weights for six domains and compare them to a default baseline.

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Sub-domain Modelling for Dialogue Management with Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning
Paweł Budzianowski | Stefan Ultes | Pei-Hao Su | Nikola Mrkšić | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Iñigo Casanueva | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the 18th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

Human conversation is inherently complex, often spanning many different topics/domains. This makes policy learning for dialogue systems very challenging. Standard flat reinforcement learning methods do not provide an efficient framework for modelling such dialogues. In this paper, we focus on the under-explored problem of multi-domain dialogue management. First, we propose a new method for hierarchical reinforcement learning using the option framework. Next, we show that the proposed architecture learns faster and arrives at a better policy than the existing flat ones do. Moreover, we show how pretrained policies can be adapted to more complex systems with an additional set of new actions. In doing that, we show that our approach has the potential to facilitate policy optimisation for more sophisticated multi-domain dialogue systems.

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Sample-efficient Actor-Critic Reinforcement Learning with Supervised Data for Dialogue Management
Pei-Hao Su | Paweł Budzianowski | Stefan Ultes | Milica Gašić | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 18th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

Deep reinforcement learning (RL) methods have significant potential for dialogue policy optimisation. However, they suffer from a poor performance in the early stages of learning. This is especially problematic for on-line learning with real users. Two approaches are introduced to tackle this problem. Firstly, to speed up the learning process, two sample-efficient neural networks algorithms: trust region actor-critic with experience replay (TRACER) and episodic natural actor-critic with experience replay (eNACER) are presented. For TRACER, the trust region helps to control the learning step size and avoid catastrophic model changes. For eNACER, the natural gradient identifies the steepest ascent direction in policy space to speed up the convergence. Both models employ off-policy learning with experience replay to improve sample-efficiency. Secondly, to mitigate the cold start issue, a corpus of demonstration data is utilised to pre-train the models prior to on-line reinforcement learning. Combining these two approaches, we demonstrate a practical approach to learn deep RL-based dialogue policies and demonstrate their effectiveness in a task-oriented information seeking domain.

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DialPort, Gone Live: An Update After A Year of Development
Kyusong Lee | Tiancheng Zhao | Yulun Du | Edward Cai | Allen Lu | Eli Pincus | David Traum | Stefan Ultes | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Milica Gasic | Steve Young | Maxine Eskenazi
Proceedings of the 18th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

DialPort collects user data for connected spoken dialog systems. At present six systems are linked to a central portal that directs the user to the applicable system and suggests systems that the user may be interested in. User data has started to flow into the system.

2016

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Conditional Generation and Snapshot Learning in Neural Dialogue Systems
Tsung-Hsien Wen | Milica Gašić | Nikola Mrkšić | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Pei-Hao Su | Stefan Ultes | David Vandyke | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Multi-domain Neural Network Language Generation for Spoken Dialogue Systems
Tsung-Hsien Wen | Milica Gašić | Nikola Mrkšić | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Pei-Hao Su | David Vandyke | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Counter-fitting Word Vectors to Linguistic Constraints
Nikola Mrkšić | Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Blaise Thomson | Milica Gašić | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Pei-Hao Su | David Vandyke | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Exploiting Sentence and Context Representations in Deep Neural Models for Spoken Language Understanding
Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Milica Gašić | Nikola Mrkšić | Pei-Hao Su | Stefan Ultes | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Steve Young
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

This paper presents a deep learning architecture for the semantic decoder component of a Statistical Spoken Dialogue System. In a slot-filling dialogue, the semantic decoder predicts the dialogue act and a set of slot-value pairs from a set of n-best hypotheses returned by the Automatic Speech Recognition. Most current models for spoken language understanding assume (i) word-aligned semantic annotations as in sequence taggers and (ii) delexicalisation, or a mapping of input words to domain-specific concepts using heuristics that try to capture morphological variation but that do not scale to other domains nor to language variation (e.g., morphology, synonyms, paraphrasing ). In this work the semantic decoder is trained using unaligned semantic annotations and it uses distributed semantic representation learning to overcome the limitations of explicit delexicalisation. The proposed architecture uses a convolutional neural network for the sentence representation and a long-short term memory network for the context representation. Results are presented for the publicly available DSTC2 corpus and an In-car corpus which is similar to DSTC2 but has a significantly higher word error rate (WER).

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On-line Active Reward Learning for Policy Optimisation in Spoken Dialogue Systems
Pei-Hao Su | Milica Gašić | Nikola Mrkšić | Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Stefan Ultes | David Vandyke | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2015

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Semantically Conditioned LSTM-based Natural Language Generation for Spoken Dialogue Systems
Tsung-Hsien Wen | Milica Gašić | Nikola Mrkšić | Pei-Hao Su | David Vandyke | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Stochastic Language Generation in Dialogue using Recurrent Neural Networks with Convolutional Sentence Reranking
Tsung-Hsien Wen | Milica Gašić | Dongho Kim | Nikola Mrkšić | Pei-Hao Su | David Vandyke | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

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Hyper-parameter Optimisation of Gaussian Process Reinforcement Learning for Statistical Dialogue Management
Lu Chen | Pei-Hao Su | Milica Gašić
Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

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Reward Shaping with Recurrent Neural Networks for Speeding up On-Line Policy Learning in Spoken Dialogue Systems
Pei-Hao Su | David Vandyke | Milica Gašić | Nikola Mrkšić | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

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Multi-domain Dialog State Tracking using Recurrent Neural Networks
Nikola Mrkšić | Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Blaise Thomson | Milica Gašić | Pei-Hao Su | David Vandyke | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2014

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The PARLANCE mobile application for interactive search in English and Mandarin
Helen Hastie | Marie-Aude Aufaure | Panos Alexopoulos | Hugues Bouchard | Catherine Breslin | Heriberto Cuayáhuitl | Nina Dethlefs | Milica Gašić | James Henderson | Oliver Lemon | Xingkun Liu | Peter Mika | Nesrine Ben Mustapha | Tim Potter | Verena Rieser | Blaise Thomson | Pirros Tsiakoulis | Yves Vanrompay | Boris Villazon-Terrazas | Majid Yazdani | Steve Young | Yanchao Yu
Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue (SIGDIAL)

2013

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Demonstration of the PARLANCE system: a data-driven incremental, spoken dialogue system for interactive search
Helen Hastie | Marie-Aude Aufaure | Panos Alexopoulos | Heriberto Cuayáhuitl | Nina Dethlefs | Milica Gasic | James Henderson | Oliver Lemon | Xingkun Liu | Peter Mika | Nesrine Ben Mustapha | Verena Rieser | Blaise Thomson | Pirros Tsiakoulis | Yves Vanrompay
Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2013 Conference

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POMDP-based dialogue manager adaptation to extended domains
Milica Gašić | Catherine Breslin | Matthew Henderson | Dongho Kim | Martin Szummer | Blaise Thomson | Pirros Tsiakoulis | Steve Young
Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2013 Conference

2012

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The Effect of Cognitive Load on a Statistical Dialogue System
Milica Gašić | Pirros Tsiakoulis | Matthew Henderson | Blaise Thomson | Kai Yu | Eli Tzirkel | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

2010

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Parameter estimation for agenda-based user simulation
Simon Keizer | Milica Gašić | Filip Jurčíček | François Mairesse | Blaise Thomson | Kai Yu | Steve Young
Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2010 Conference

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Gaussian Processes for Fast Policy Optimisation of POMDP-based Dialogue Managers
Milica Gašić | Filip Jurčíček | Simon Keizer | Francois Mairesse | Blaise Thomson | Kai Yu | Steve Young
Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2010 Conference

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Phrase-Based Statistical Language Generation Using Graphical Models and Active Learning
François Mairesse | Milica Gašić | Filip Jurčíček | Simon Keizer | Blaise Thomson | Kai Yu | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2009

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k-Nearest Neighbor Monte-Carlo Control Algorithm for POMDP-Based Dialogue Systems
Fabrice Lefèvre | Milica Gašić | Filip Jurčíček | Simon Keizer | François Mairesse | Blaise Thomson | Kai Yu | Steve Young
Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2009 Conference

2008

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Training and Evaluation of the HIS POMDP Dialogue System in Noise
Milica Gašić | Simon Keizer | Francois Mairesse | Jost Schatzmann | Blaise Thomson | Kai Yu | Steve Young
Proceedings of the 9th SIGdial Workshop on Discourse and Dialogue