Milan Straka


2020

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ÚFAL at MRP 2020: Permutation-invariant Semantic Parsing in PERIN
David Samuel | Milan Straka
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2020 Shared Task: Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing

We present PERIN, a novel permutation-invariant approach to sentence-to-graph semantic parsing. PERIN is a versatile, cross-framework and language independent architecture for universal modeling of semantic structures. Our system participated in the CoNLL 2020 shared task, Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing (MRP 2020), where it was evaluated on five different frameworks (AMR, DRG, EDS, PTG and UCCA) across four languages. PERIN was one of the winners of the shared task. The source code and pretrained models are available at http://www.github.com/ufal/perin.

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Prague Dependency Treebank - Consolidated 1.0
Jan Hajič | Eduard Bejček | Jaroslava Hlavacova | Marie Mikulová | Milan Straka | Jan Štěpánek | Barbora Štěpánková
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present a richly annotated and genre-diversified language resource, the Prague Dependency Treebank-Consolidated 1.0 (PDT-C 1.0), the purpose of which is - as it always been the case for the family of the Prague Dependency Treebanks - to serve both as a training data for various types of NLP tasks as well as for linguistically-oriented research. PDT-C 1.0 contains four different datasets of Czech, uniformly annotated using the standard PDT scheme (albeit not everything is annotated manually, as we describe in detail here). The texts come from different sources: daily newspaper articles, Czech translation of the Wall Street Journal, transcribed dialogs and a small amount of user-generated, short, often non-standard language segments typed into a web translator. Altogether, the treebank contains around 180,000 sentences with their morphological, surface and deep syntactic annotation. The diversity of the texts and annotations should serve well the NLP applications as well as it is an invaluable resource for linguistic research, including comparative studies regarding texts of different genres. The corpus is publicly and freely available.

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UDPipe at EvaLatin 2020: Contextualized Embeddings and Treebank Embeddings
Milan Straka | Jana Straková
Proceedings of LT4HALA 2020 - 1st Workshop on Language Technologies for Historical and Ancient Languages

We present our contribution to the EvaLatin shared task, which is the first evaluation campaign devoted to the evaluation of NLP tools for Latin. We submitted a system based on UDPipe 2.0, one of the winners of the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task, The 2018 Shared Task on Extrinsic Parser Evaluation and SIGMORPHON 2019 Shared Task. Our system places first by a wide margin both in lemmatization and POS tagging in the open modality, where additional supervised data is allowed, in which case we utilize all Universal Dependency Latin treebanks. In the closed modality, where only the EvaLatin training data is allowed, our system achieves the best performance in lemmatization and in classical subtask of POS tagging, while reaching second place in cross-genre and cross-time settings. In the ablation experiments, we also evaluate the influence of BERT and XLM-RoBERTa contextualized embeddings, and the treebank encodings of the different flavors of Latin treebanks.

2019

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75 Languages, 1 Model: Parsing Universal Dependencies Universally
Dan Kondratyuk | Milan Straka
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We present UDify, a multilingual multi-task model capable of accurately predicting universal part-of-speech, morphological features, lemmas, and dependency trees simultaneously for all 124 Universal Dependencies treebanks across 75 languages. By leveraging a multilingual BERT self-attention model pretrained on 104 languages, we found that fine-tuning it on all datasets concatenated together with simple softmax classifiers for each UD task can meet or exceed state-of-the-art UPOS, UFeats, Lemmas, (and especially) UAS, and LAS scores, without requiring any recurrent or language-specific components. We evaluate UDify for multilingual learning, showing that low-resource languages benefit the most from cross-linguistic annotations. We also evaluate for zero-shot learning, with results suggesting that multilingual training provides strong UD predictions even for languages that neither UDify nor BERT have ever been trained on.

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Grammatical Error Correction in Low-Resource Scenarios
Jakub Náplava | Milan Straka
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2019)

Grammatical error correction in English is a long studied problem with many existing systems and datasets. However, there has been only a limited research on error correction of other languages. In this paper, we present a new dataset AKCES-GEC on grammatical error correction for Czech. We then make experiments on Czech, German and Russian and show that when utilizing synthetic parallel corpus, Transformer neural machine translation model can reach new state-of-the-art results on these datasets. AKCES-GEC is published under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license at http://hdl.handle.net/11234/1-3057, and the source code of the GEC model is available at https://github.com/ufal/low-resource-gec-wnut2019.

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MRP 2019: Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing
Stephan Oepen | Omri Abend | Jan Hajic | Daniel Hershcovich | Marco Kuhlmann | Tim O’Gorman | Nianwen Xue | Jayeol Chun | Milan Straka | Zdenka Uresova
Proceedings of the Shared Task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing at the 2019 Conference on Natural Language Learning

The 2019 Shared Task at the Conference for Computational Language Learning (CoNLL) was devoted to Meaning Representation Parsing (MRP) across frameworks. Five distinct approaches to the representation of sentence meaning in the form of directed graph were represented in the training and evaluation data for the task, packaged in a uniform abstract graph representation and serialization. The task received submissions from eighteen teams, of which five do not participate in the official ranking because they arrived after the closing deadline, made use of additional training data, or involved one of the task co-organizers. All technical information regarding the task, including system submissions, official results, and links to supporting resources and software are available from the task web site at: http://mrp.nlpl.eu

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ÚFAL MRPipe at MRP 2019: UDPipe Goes Semantic in the Meaning Representation Parsing Shared Task
Milan Straka | Jana Straková
Proceedings of the Shared Task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing at the 2019 Conference on Natural Language Learning

We present a system description of our contribution to the CoNLL 2019 shared task, CrossFramework Meaning Representation Parsing (MRP 2019). The proposed architecture is our first attempt towards a semantic parsing extension of the UDPipe 2.0, a lemmatization, POS tagging and dependency parsing pipeline. For the MRP 2019, which features five formally and linguistically different approaches to meaning representation (DM, PSD, EDS, UCCA and AMR), we propose a uniform, language and framework agnostic graph-tograph neural network architecture. Without any knowledge about the graph structure, and specifically without any linguistically or framework motivated features, our system implicitly models the meaning representation graphs. After fixing a human error (we used earlier incorrect version of provided test set analyses), our submission would score third in the competition evaluation. The source code of our system is available at https://github.com/ufal/mrpipe-conll2019.

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Neural Architectures for Nested NER through Linearization
Jana Straková | Milan Straka | Jan Hajic
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose two neural network architectures for nested named entity recognition (NER), a setting in which named entities may overlap and also be labeled with more than one label. We encode the nested labels using a linearized scheme. In our first proposed approach, the nested labels are modeled as multilabels corresponding to the Cartesian product of the nested labels in a standard LSTM-CRF architecture. In the second one, the nested NER is viewed as a sequence-to-sequence problem, in which the input sequence consists of the tokens and output sequence of the labels, using hard attention on the word whose label is being predicted. The proposed methods outperform the nested NER state of the art on four corpora: ACE-2004, ACE-2005, GENIA and Czech CNEC. We also enrich our architectures with the recently published contextual embeddings: ELMo, BERT and Flair, reaching further improvements for the four nested entity corpora. In addition, we report flat NER state-of-the-art results for CoNLL-2002 Dutch and Spanish and for CoNLL-2003 English.

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UDPipe at SIGMORPHON 2019: Contextualized Embeddings, Regularization with Morphological Categories, Corpora Merging
Milan Straka | Jana Straková | Jan Hajic
Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology

We present our contribution to the SIGMORPHON 2019 Shared Task: Crosslinguality and Context in Morphology, Task 2: contextual morphological analysis and lemmatization. We submitted a modification of the UDPipe 2.0, one of best-performing systems of the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies and an overall winner of the The 2018 Shared Task on Extrinsic Parser Evaluation. As our first improvement, we use the pretrained contextualized embeddings (BERT) as additional inputs to the network; secondly, we use individual morphological features as regularization; and finally, we merge the selected corpora of the same language. In the lemmatization task, our system exceeds all the submitted systems by a wide margin with lemmatization accuracy 95.78 (second best was 95.00, third 94.46). In the morphological analysis, our system placed tightly second: our morphological analysis accuracy was 93.19, the winning system’s 93.23.

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CUNI System for the Building Educational Applications 2019 Shared Task: Grammatical Error Correction
Jakub Náplava | Milan Straka
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

Our submitted models are NMT systems based on the Transformer model, which we improve by incorporating several enhancements: applying dropout to whole source and target words, weighting target subwords, averaging model checkpoints, and using the trained model iteratively for correcting the intermediate translations. The system in the Restricted Track is trained on the provided corpora with oversampled “cleaner” sentences and reaches 59.39 F0.5 score on the test set. The system in the Low-Resource Track is trained from Wikipedia revision histories and reaches 44.13 F0.5 score. Finally, we finetune the system from the Low-Resource Track on restricted data and achieve 64.55 F0.5 score.

2018

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Diacritics Restoration Using Neural Networks
Jakub Náplava | Milan Straka | Pavel Straňák | Jan Hajič
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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SumeCzech: Large Czech News-Based Summarization Dataset
Milan Straka | Nikita Mediankin | Tom Kocmi | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Vojtěch Hudeček | Jan Hajič
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Using Adversarial Examples in Natural Language Processing
Petr Bělohlávek | Ondřej Plátek | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Milan Straka
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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CoNLL 2018 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies
Daniel Zeman | Jan Hajič | Martin Popel | Martin Potthast | Milan Straka | Filip Ginter | Joakim Nivre | Slav Petrov
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

Every year, the Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL) features a shared task, in which participants train and test their learning systems on the same data sets. In 2018, one of two tasks was devoted to learning dependency parsers for a large number of languages, in a real-world setting without any gold-standard annotation on test input. All test sets followed a unified annotation scheme, namely that of Universal Dependencies. This shared task constitutes a 2nd edition—the first one took place in 2017 (Zeman et al., 2017); the main metric from 2017 has been kept, allowing for easy comparison, also in 2018, and two new main metrics have been used. New datasets added to the Universal Dependencies collection between mid-2017 and the spring of 2018 have contributed to increased difficulty of the task this year. In this overview paper, we define the task and the updated evaluation methodology, describe data preparation, report and analyze the main results, and provide a brief categorization of the different approaches of the participating systems.

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UDPipe 2.0 Prototype at CoNLL 2018 UD Shared Task
Milan Straka
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

UDPipe is a trainable pipeline which performs sentence segmentation, tokenization, POS tagging, lemmatization and dependency parsing. We present a prototype for UDPipe 2.0 and evaluate it in the CoNLL 2018 UD Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies, which employs three metrics for submission ranking. Out of 26 participants, the prototype placed first in the MLAS ranking, third in the LAS ranking and third in the BLEX ranking. In extrinsic parser evaluation EPE 2018, the system ranked first in the overall score.

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LemmaTag: Jointly Tagging and Lemmatizing for Morphologically Rich Languages with BRNNs
Daniel Kondratyuk | Tomáš Gavenčiak | Milan Straka | Jan Hajič
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present LemmaTag, a featureless neural network architecture that jointly generates part-of-speech tags and lemmas for sentences by using bidirectional RNNs with character-level and word-level embeddings. We demonstrate that both tasks benefit from sharing the encoding part of the network, predicting tag subcategories, and using the tagger output as an input to the lemmatizer. We evaluate our model across several languages with complex morphology, which surpasses state-of-the-art accuracy in both part-of-speech tagging and lemmatization in Czech, German, and Arabic.

2017

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CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies
Daniel Zeman | Martin Popel | Milan Straka | Jan Hajič | Joakim Nivre | Filip Ginter | Juhani Luotolahti | Sampo Pyysalo | Slav Petrov | Martin Potthast | Francis Tyers | Elena Badmaeva | Memduh Gokirmak | Anna Nedoluzhko | Silvie Cinková | Jan Hajič jr. | Jaroslava Hlaváčová | Václava Kettnerová | Zdeňka Urešová | Jenna Kanerva | Stina Ojala | Anna Missilä | Christopher D. Manning | Sebastian Schuster | Siva Reddy | Dima Taji | Nizar Habash | Herman Leung | Marie-Catherine de Marneffe | Manuela Sanguinetti | Maria Simi | Hiroshi Kanayama | Valeria de Paiva | Kira Droganova | Héctor Martínez Alonso | Çağrı Çöltekin | Umut Sulubacak | Hans Uszkoreit | Vivien Macketanz | Aljoscha Burchardt | Kim Harris | Katrin Marheinecke | Georg Rehm | Tolga Kayadelen | Mohammed Attia | Ali Elkahky | Zhuoran Yu | Emily Pitler | Saran Lertpradit | Michael Mandl | Jesse Kirchner | Hector Fernandez Alcalde | Jana Strnadová | Esha Banerjee | Ruli Manurung | Antonio Stella | Atsuko Shimada | Sookyoung Kwak | Gustavo Mendonça | Tatiana Lando | Rattima Nitisaroj | Josie Li
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

The Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL) features a shared task, in which participants train and test their learning systems on the same data sets. In 2017, the task was devoted to learning dependency parsers for a large number of languages, in a real-world setting without any gold-standard annotation on input. All test sets followed a unified annotation scheme, namely that of Universal Dependencies. In this paper, we define the task and evaluation methodology, describe how the data sets were prepared, report and analyze the main results, and provide a brief categorization of the different approaches of the participating systems.

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Tokenizing, POS Tagging, Lemmatizing and Parsing UD 2.0 with UDPipe
Milan Straka | Jana Straková
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

Many natural language processing tasks, including the most advanced ones, routinely start by several basic processing steps – tokenization and segmentation, most likely also POS tagging and lemmatization, and commonly parsing as well. A multilingual pipeline performing these steps can be trained using the Universal Dependencies project, which contains annotations of the described tasks for 50 languages in the latest release UD 2.0. We present an update to UDPipe, a simple-to-use pipeline processing CoNLL-U version 2.0 files, which performs these tasks for multiple languages without requiring additional external data. We provide models for all 50 languages of UD 2.0, and furthermore, the pipeline can be trained easily using data in CoNLL-U format. UDPipe is a standalone application in C++, with bindings available for Python, Java, C# and Perl. In the CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies, UDPipe was the eight best system, while achieving low running times and moderately sized models.

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Neural Networks for Multi-Word Expression Detection
Natalia Klyueva | Antoine Doucet | Milan Straka
Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Multiword Expressions (MWE 2017)

In this paper we describe the MUMULS system that participated to the 2017 shared task on automatic identification of verbal multiword expressions (VMWEs). The MUMULS system was implemented using a supervised approach based on recurrent neural networks using the open source library TensorFlow. The model was trained on a data set containing annotated VMWEs as well as morphological and syntactic information. The MUMULS system performed the identification of VMWEs in 15 languages, it was one of few systems that could categorize VMWEs type in nearly all languages.

2016

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Merging Data Resources for Inflectional and Derivational Morphology in Czech
Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Magda Ševčíková | Milan Straka | Jonáš Vidra | Adéla Limburská
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

The paper deals with merging two complementary resources of morphological data previously existing for Czech, namely the inflectional dictionary MorfFlex CZ and the recently developed lexical network DeriNet. The MorfFlex CZ dictionary has been used by a morphological analyzer capable of analyzing/generating several million Czech word forms according to the rules of Czech inflection. The DeriNet network contains several hundred thousand Czech lemmas interconnected with links corresponding to derivational relations (relations between base words and words derived from them). After summarizing basic characteristics of both resources, the process of merging is described, focusing on both rather technical aspects (growth of the data, measuring the quality of newly added derivational relations) and linguistic issues (treating lexical homonymy and vowel/consonant alternations). The resulting resource contains 970 thousand lemmas connected with 715 thousand derivational relations and is publicly available on the web under the CC-BY-NC-SA license. The data were incorporated in the MorphoDiTa library version 2.0 (which provides morphological analysis, generation, tagging and lemmatization for Czech) and can be browsed and searched by two web tools (DeriNet Viewer and DeriNet Search tool).

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UDPipe: Trainable Pipeline for Processing CoNLL-U Files Performing Tokenization, Morphological Analysis, POS Tagging and Parsing
Milan Straka | Jan Hajič | Jana Straková
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Automatic natural language processing of large texts often presents recurring challenges in multiple languages: even for most advanced tasks, the texts are first processed by basic processing steps – from tokenization to parsing. We present an extremely simple-to-use tool consisting of one binary and one model (per language), which performs these tasks for multiple languages without the need for any other external data. UDPipe, a pipeline processing CoNLL-U-formatted files, performs tokenization, morphological analysis, part-of-speech tagging, lemmatization and dependency parsing for nearly all treebanks of Universal Dependencies 1.2 (namely, the whole pipeline is currently available for 32 out of 37 treebanks). In addition, the pipeline is easily trainable with training data in CoNLL-U format (and in some cases also with additional raw corpora) and requires minimal linguistic knowledge on the users’ part. The training code is also released.

2014

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Open-Source Tools for Morphology, Lemmatization, POS Tagging and Named Entity Recognition
Jana Straková | Milan Straka | Jan Hajič
Proceedings of 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

2013

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Stop-probability estimates computed on a large corpus improve Unsupervised Dependency Parsing
David Mareček | Milan Straka
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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