We present a bracketing-based encoding that can be used to represent any 2-planar dependency tree over a sentence of length n as a sequence of n labels, hence providing almost total coverage of crossing arcs in sequence labeling parsing. First, we show that existing bracketing encodings for parsing as labeling can only handle a very mild extension of projective trees. Second, we overcome this limitation by taking into account the well-known property of 2-planarity, which is present in the vast majority of dependency syntactic structures in treebanks, i.e., the arcs of a dependency tree can be split into two planes such that arcs in a given plane do not cross. We take advantage of this property to design a method that balances the brackets and that encodes the arcs belonging to each of those planes, allowing for almost unrestricted non-projectivity (∼99.9% coverage) in sequence labeling parsing. The experiments show that our linearizations improve over the accuracy of the original bracketing encoding in highly non-projective treebanks (on average by 0.4 LAS), while achieving a similar speed. Also, they are especially suitable when PoS tags are not used as input parameters to the models.
We define a mapping from transition-based parsing algorithms that read sentences from left to right to sequence labeling encodings of syntactic trees. This not only establishes a theoretical relation between transition-based parsing and sequence-labeling parsing, but also provides a method to obtain new encodings for fast and simple sequence labeling parsing from the many existing transition-based parsers for different formalisms. Applying it to dependency parsing, we implement sequence labeling versions of four algorithms, showing that they are learnable and obtain comparable performance to existing encodings.
We explore whether it is possible to leverage eye-tracking data in an RNN dependency parser (for English) when such information is only available during training - i.e. no aggregated or token-level gaze features are used at inference time. To do so, we train a multitask learning model that parses sentences as sequence labeling and leverages gaze features as auxiliary tasks. Our method also learns to train from disjoint datasets, i.e. it can be used to test whether already collected gaze features are useful to improve the performance on new non-gazed annotated treebanks. Accuracy gains are modest but positive, showing the feasibility of the approach. It can serve as a first step towards architectures that can better leverage eye-tracking data or other complementary information available only for training sentences, possibly leading to improvements in syntactic parsing.
We use parsing as sequence labeling as a common framework to learn across constituency and dependency syntactic abstractions.To do so, we cast the problem as multitask learning (MTL). First, we show that adding a parsing paradigm as an auxiliary loss consistently improves the performance on the other paradigm. Secondly, we explore an MTL sequence labeling model that parses both representations, at almost no cost in terms of performance and speed. The results across the board show that on average MTL models with auxiliary losses for constituency parsing outperform single-task ones by 1.05 F1 points, and for dependency parsing by 0.62 UAS points.
We recast dependency parsing as a sequence labeling problem, exploring several encodings of dependency trees as labels. While dependency parsing by means of sequence labeling had been attempted in existing work, results suggested that the technique was impractical. We show instead that with a conventional BILSTM-based model it is possible to obtain fast and accurate parsers. These parsers are conceptually simple, not needing traditional parsing algorithms or auxiliary structures. However, experiments on the PTB and a sample of UD treebanks show that they provide a good speed-accuracy tradeoff, with results competitive with more complex approaches.