Martin Schmitt


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Increasing Learning Efficiency of Self-Attention Networks through Direct Position Interactions, Learnable Temperature, and Convoluted Attention
Philipp Dufter | Martin Schmitt | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Self-Attention Networks (SANs) are an integral part of successful neural architectures such as Transformer (Vaswani et al., 2017), and thus of pretrained language models such as BERT (Devlin et al., 2019) or GPT-3 (Brown et al., 2020). Training SANs on a task or pretraining them on language modeling requires large amounts of data and compute resources. We are searching for modifications to SANs that enable faster learning, i.e., higher accuracies after fewer update steps. We investigate three modifications to SANs: direct position interactions, learnable temperature, and convoluted attention. When evaluating them on part-of-speech tagging, we find that direct position interactions are an alternative to position embeddings, and convoluted attention has the potential to speed up the learning process.

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An Unsupervised Joint System for Text Generation from Knowledge Graphs and Semantic Parsing
Martin Schmitt | Sahand Sharifzadeh | Volker Tresp | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Knowledge graphs (KGs) can vary greatly from one domain to another. Therefore supervised approaches to both graph-to-text generation and text-to-graph knowledge extraction (semantic parsing) will always suffer from a shortage of domain-specific parallel graph-text data; at the same time, adapting a model trained on a different domain is often impossible due to little or no overlap in entities and relations. This situation calls for an approach that (1) does not need large amounts of annotated data and thus (2) does not need to rely on domain adaptation techniques to work well on different domains. To this end, we present the first approach to unsupervised text generation from KGs and show simultaneously how it can be used for unsupervised semantic parsing. We evaluate our approach on WebNLG v2.1 and a new benchmark leveraging scene graphs from Visual Genome. Our system outperforms strong baselines for both text<->graph conversion tasks without any manual adaptation from one dataset to the other. In additional experiments, we investigate the impact of using different unsupervised objectives.


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SherLIiC: A Typed Event-Focused Lexical Inference Benchmark for Evaluating Natural Language Inference
Martin Schmitt | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present SherLIiC, a testbed for lexical inference in context (LIiC), consisting of 3985 manually annotated inference rule candidates (InfCands), accompanied by (i) ~960k unlabeled InfCands, and (ii) ~190k typed textual relations between Freebase entities extracted from the large entity-linked corpus ClueWeb09. Each InfCand consists of one of these relations, expressed as a lemmatized dependency path, and two argument placeholders, each linked to one or more Freebase types. Due to our candidate selection process based on strong distributional evidence, SherLIiC is much harder than existing testbeds because distributional evidence is of little utility in the classification of InfCands. We also show that, due to its construction, many of SherLIiC’s correct InfCands are novel and missing from existing rule bases. We evaluate a large number of strong baselines on SherLIiC, ranging from semantic vector space models to state of the art neural models of natural language inference (NLI). We show that SherLIiC poses a tough challenge to existing NLI systems.


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Joint Aspect and Polarity Classification for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis with End-to-End Neural Networks
Martin Schmitt | Simon Steinheber | Konrad Schreiber | Benjamin Roth
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this work, we propose a new model for aspect-based sentiment analysis. In contrast to previous approaches, we jointly model the detection of aspects and the classification of their polarity in an end-to-end trainable neural network. We conduct experiments with different neural architectures and word representations on the recent GermEval 2017 dataset. We were able to show considerable performance gains by using the joint modeling approach in all settings compared to pipeline approaches. The combination of a convolutional neural network and fasttext embeddings outperformed the best submission of the shared task in 2017, establishing a new state of the art.

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Embedding Learning Through Multilingual Concept Induction
Philipp Dufter | Mengjie Zhao | Martin Schmitt | Alexander Fraser | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present a new method for estimating vector space representations of words: embedding learning by concept induction. We test this method on a highly parallel corpus and learn semantic representations of words in 1259 different languages in a single common space. An extensive experimental evaluation on crosslingual word similarity and sentiment analysis indicates that concept-based multilingual embedding learning performs better than previous approaches.