Martin Krallinger

Also published as: M. Krallinger


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PharmaCoNER: Pharmacological Substances, Compounds and proteins Named Entity Recognition track
Aitor Gonzalez-Agirre | Montserrat Marimon | Ander Intxaurrondo | Obdulia Rabal | Marta Villegas | Martin Krallinger
Proceedings of The 5th Workshop on BioNLP Open Shared Tasks

One of the biomedical entity types of relevance for medicine or biosciences are chemical compounds and drugs. The correct detection these entities is critical for other text mining applications building on them, such as adverse drug-reaction detection, medication-related fake news or drug-target extraction. Although a significant effort was made to detect mentions of drugs/chemicals in English texts, so far only very limited attempts were made to recognize them in medical documents in other languages. Taking into account the growing amount of medical publications and clinical records written in Spanish, we have organized the first shared task on detecting drug and chemical entities in Spanish medical documents. Additionally, we included a clinical concept-indexing sub-track asking teams to return SNOMED-CT identifiers related to drugs/chemicals for a collection of documents. For this task, named PharmaCoNER, we generated annotation guidelines together with a corpus of 1,000 manually annotated clinical case studies. A total of 22 teams participated in the sub-track 1, (77 system runs), and 7 teams in the sub-track 2 (19 system runs). Top scoring teams used sophisticated deep learning approaches yielding very competitive results with F-measures above 0.91. These results indicate that there is a real interest in promoting biomedical text mining efforts beyond English. We foresee that the PharmaCoNER annotation guidelines, corpus and participant systems will foster the development of new resources for clinical and biomedical text mining systems of Spanish medical data.

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Medical Word Embeddings for Spanish: Development and Evaluation
Felipe Soares | Marta Villegas | Aitor Gonzalez-Agirre | Martin Krallinger | Jordi Armengol-Estapé
Proceedings of the 2nd Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop

Word embeddings are representations of words in a dense vector space. Although they are not recent phenomena in Natural Language Processing (NLP), they have gained momentum after the recent developments of neural methods and Word2Vec. Regarding their applications in medical and clinical NLP, they are invaluable resources when training in-domain named entity recognition systems, classifiers or taggers, for instance. Thus, the development of tailored word embeddings for medical NLP is of great interest. However, we identified a gap in the literature which we aim to fill in this paper: the availability of embeddings for medical NLP in Spanish, as well as a standardized form of intrinsic evaluation. Since most work has been done for English, some established datasets for intrinsic evaluation are already available. In this paper, we show the steps we employed to adapt such datasets for the first time to Spanish, of particular relevance due to the considerable volume of EHRs in this language, as well as the creation of in-domain medical word embeddings for the Spanish using the state-of-the-art FastText model. We performed intrinsic evaluation with our adapted datasets, as well as extrinsic evaluation with a named entity recognition systems using a baseline embedding of general-domain. Both experiments proved that our embeddings are suitable for use in medical NLP in the Spanish language, and are more accurate than general-domain ones.

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Findings of the WMT 2019 Biomedical Translation Shared Task: Evaluation for MEDLINE Abstracts and Biomedical Terminologies
Rachel Bawden | Kevin Bretonnel Cohen | Cristian Grozea | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Madeleine Kittner | Martin Krallinger | Nancy Mah | Aurelie Neveol | Mariana Neves | Felipe Soares | Amy Siu | Karin Verspoor | Maika Vicente Navarro
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)

In the fourth edition of the WMT Biomedical Translation task, we considered a total of six languages, namely Chinese (zh), English (en), French (fr), German (de), Portuguese (pt), and Spanish (es). We performed an evaluation of automatic translations for a total of 10 language directions, namely, zh/en, en/zh, fr/en, en/fr, de/en, en/de, pt/en, en/pt, es/en, and en/es. We provided training data based on MEDLINE abstracts for eight of the 10 language pairs and test sets for all of them. In addition to that, we offered a new sub-task for the translation of terms in biomedical terminologies for the en/es language direction. Higher BLEU scores (close to 0.5) were obtained for the es/en, en/es and en/pt test sets, as well as for the terminology sub-task. After manual validation of the primary runs, some submissions were judged to be better than the reference translations, for instance, for de/en, en/es and es/en.

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BSC Participation in the WMT Translation of Biomedical Abstracts
Felipe Soares | Martin Krallinger
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)

This paper describes the machine translation systems developed by the Barcelona Supercomputing (BSC) team for the biomedical translation shared task of WMT19. Our system is based on Neural Machine Translation unsing the OpenNMT-py toolkit and Transformer architecture. We participated in four translation directions for the English/Spanish and English/Portuguese language pairs. To create our training data, we concatenated several parallel corpora, both from in-domain and out-of-domain sources, as well as terminological resources from UMLS.


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Importance of negations and experimental qualifiers in biomedical literature
Martin Krallinger
Proceedings of the Workshop on Negation and Speculation in Natural Language Processing


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Refactoring Corpora
Helen L. Johnson | William A. Baumgartner Jr. | Martin Krallinger | K. Bretonnel Cohen | Lawrence Hunter
Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL BioNLP Workshop on Linking Natural Language and Biology


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Assessing the Correlation between Contextual Patterns and Biological Entity Tagging
M. Krallinger | M. Padrón | C. Blaschke | A. Valencia
Proceedings of the International Joint Workshop on Natural Language Processing in Biomedicine and its Applications (NLPBA/BioNLP)