Maria Chang


2019

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Graph Enhanced Cross-Domain Text-to-SQL Generation
Siyu Huo | Tengfei Ma | Jie Chen | Maria Chang | Lingfei Wu | Michael Witbrock
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Graph-Based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-13)

Semantic parsing is a fundamental problem in natural language understanding, as it involves the mapping of natural language to structured forms such as executable queries or logic-like knowledge representations. Existing deep learning approaches for semantic parsing have shown promise on a variety of benchmark data sets, particularly on text-to-SQL parsing. However, most text-to-SQL parsers do not generalize to unseen data sets in different domains. In this paper, we propose a new cross-domain learning scheme to perform text-to-SQL translation and demonstrate its use on Spider, a large-scale cross-domain text-to-SQL data set. We improve upon a state-of-the-art Spider model, SyntaxSQLNet, by constructing a graph of column names for all databases and using graph neural networks to compute their embeddings. The resulting embeddings offer better cross-domain representations and SQL queries, as evidenced by substantial improvement on the Spider data set compared to SyntaxSQLNet.

2018

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An Interface for Annotating Science Questions
Michael Boratko | Harshit Padigela | Divyendra Mikkilineni | Pritish Yuvraj | Rajarshi Das | Andrew McCallum | Maria Chang | Achille Fokoue | Pavan Kapanipathi | Nicholas Mattei | Ryan Musa | Kartik Talamadupula | Michael Witbrock
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Recent work introduces the AI2 Reasoning Challenge (ARC) and the associated ARC dataset that partitions open domain, complex science questions into an Easy Set and a Challenge Set. That work includes an analysis of 100 questions with respect to the types of knowledge and reasoning required to answer them. However, it does not include clear definitions of these types, nor does it offer information about the quality of the labels or the annotation process used. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface for human annotation of science question-answer pairs with their respective knowledge and reasoning types, in order that the classification of new questions may be improved. We build on the classification schema proposed by prior work on the ARC dataset, and evaluate the effectiveness of our interface with a preliminary study involving 10 participants.

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A Systematic Classification of Knowledge, Reasoning, and Context within the ARC Dataset
Michael Boratko | Harshit Padigela | Divyendra Mikkilineni | Pritish Yuvraj | Rajarshi Das | Andrew McCallum | Maria Chang | Achille Fokoue-Nkoutche | Pavan Kapanipathi | Nicholas Mattei | Ryan Musa | Kartik Talamadupula | Michael Witbrock
Proceedings of the Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

The recent work of Clark et al. (2018) introduces the AI2 Reasoning Challenge (ARC) and the associated ARC dataset that partitions open domain, complex science questions into easy and challenge sets. That paper includes an analysis of 100 questions with respect to the types of knowledge and reasoning required to answer them; however, it does not include clear definitions of these types, nor does it offer information about the quality of the labels. We propose a comprehensive set of definitions of knowledge and reasoning types necessary for answering the questions in the ARC dataset. Using ten annotators and a sophisticated annotation interface, we analyze the distribution of labels across the challenge set and statistics related to them. Additionally, we demonstrate that although naive information retrieval methods return sentences that are irrelevant to answering the query, sufficient supporting text is often present in the (ARC) corpus. Evaluating with human-selected relevant sentences improves the performance of a neural machine comprehension model by 42 points.