Manish Shrivastava

Also published as: Manish Srivastava


2020

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Finding The Right One and Resolving it
Payal Khullar | Arghya Bhattacharya | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 24th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

One-anaphora has figured prominently in theoretical linguistic literature, but computational linguistics research on the phenomenon is sparse. Not only that, the long standing linguistic controversy between the determinative and the nominal anaphoric element one has propagated in the limited body of computational work on one-anaphora resolution, making this task harder than it is. In the present paper, we resolve this by drawing from an adequate linguistic analysis of the word one in different syntactic environments - once again highlighting the significance of linguistic theory in Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. We prepare an annotated corpus marking actual instances of one-anaphora with their textual antecedents, and use the annotations to experiment with state-of-the art neural models for one-anaphora resolution. Apart from presenting a strong neural baseline for this task, we contribute a gold-standard corpus, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the biggest resource on one-anaphora till date.

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SCAR: Sentence Compression using Autoencoders for Reconstruction
Chanakya Malireddy | Tirth Maniar | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Sentence compression is the task of shortening a sentence while retaining its meaning. Most methods proposed for this task rely on labeled or paired corpora (containing pairs of verbose and compressed sentences), which is often expensive to collect. To overcome this limitation, we present a novel unsupervised deep learning framework (SCAR) for deletion-based sentence compression. SCAR is primarily composed of two encoder-decoder pairs: a compressor and a reconstructor. The compressor masks the input, and the reconstructor tries to regenerate it. The model is entirely trained on unlabeled data and does not require additional inputs such as explicit syntactic information or optimal compression length. SCAR’s merit lies in the novel Linkage Loss function, which correlates the compressor and its effect on reconstruction, guiding it to drop inferable tokens. SCAR achieves higher ROUGE scores on benchmark datasets than the existing state-of-the-art methods and baselines. We also conduct a user study to demonstrate the application of our model as a text highlighting system. Using our model to underscore salient information facilitates speed-reading and reduces the time required to skim a document.

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A Simple and Effective Dependency Parser for Telugu
Sneha Nallani | Manish Shrivastava | Dipti Sharma
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

We present a simple and effective dependency parser for Telugu, a morphologically rich, free word order language. We propose to replace the rich linguistic feature templates used in the past approaches with a minimal feature function using contextual vector representations. We train a BERT model on the Telugu Wikipedia data and use vector representations from this model to train the parser. Each sentence token is associated with a vector representing the token in the context of that sentence and the feature vectors are constructed by concatenating two token representations from the stack and one from the buffer. We put the feature representations through a feedforward network and train with a greedy transition based approach. The resulting parser has a very simple architecture with minimal feature engineering and achieves state-of-the-art results for Telugu.

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SIS@IIITH at SemEval-2020 Task 8: An Overview of Simple Text Classification Methods for Meme Analysis
Sravani Boinepelli | Manish Shrivastava | Vasudeva Varma
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Memes are steadily taking over the feeds of the public on social media. There is always the threat of malicious users on the internet posting offensive content, even through memes. Hence, the automatic detection of offensive images/memes is imperative along with detection of offensive text. However, this is a much more complex task as it involves both visual cues as well as language understanding and cultural/context knowledge. This paper describes our approach to the task of SemEval-2020 Task 8: Memotion Analysis. We chose to participate only in Task A which dealt with Sentiment Classification, which we formulated as a text classification problem. Through our experiments, we explored multiple training models to evaluate the performance of simple text classification algorithms on the raw text obtained after running OCR on meme images. Our submitted model achieved an accuracy of 72.69% and exceeded the existing baseline’s Macro F1 score by 8% on the official test dataset. Apart from describing our official submission, we shall elucidate how different classification models respond to this task.

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NoEl: An Annotated Corpus for Noun Ellipsis in English
Payal Khullar | Kushal Majmundar | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Ellipsis resolution has been identified as an important step to improve the accuracy of mainstream Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as information retrieval, event extraction, dialog systems, etc. Previous computational work on ellipsis resolution has focused on one type of ellipsis, namely Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE) and a few other related phenomenon. We extend the study of ellipsis by presenting the No(oun)El(lipsis) corpus - an annotated corpus for noun ellipsis and closely related phenomenon using the first hundred movies of Cornell Movie Dialogs Dataset. The annotations are carried out in a standoff annotation scheme that encodes the position of the licensor, the antecedent boundary, and Part-of-Speech (POS) tags of the licensor and antecedent modifier. Our corpus has 946 instances of exophoric and endophoric noun ellipsis, making it the biggest resource of noun ellipsis in English, to the best of our knowledge. We present a statistical study of our corpus with novel insights on the distribution of noun ellipsis, its licensors and antecedents. Finally, we perform the tasks of detection and resolution of noun ellipsis with different classifiers trained on our corpus and report baseline results.

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Subtl.ai at the FinSBD-2 task: Document Structure Identification by Paying Attention
Abhishek Arora | Aman Khullar | Sarath Chandra Pakala | Vishnu Ramesh | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Financial Technology and Natural Language Processing

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A Fully Expanded Dependency Treebank for Telugu
Sneha Nallani | Manish Shrivastava | Dipti Sharma
Proceedings of the WILDRE5– 5th Workshop on Indian Language Data: Resources and Evaluation

Treebanks are an essential resource for syntactic parsing. The available Paninian dependency treebank(s) for Telugu is annotated only with inter-chunk dependency relations and not all words of a sentence are part of the parse tree. In this paper, we automatically annotate the intra-chunk dependencies in the treebank using a Shift-Reduce parser based on Context Free Grammar rules for Telugu chunks. We also propose a few additional intra-chunk dependency relations for Telugu apart from the ones used in Hindi treebank. Annotating intra-chunk dependencies finally provides a complete parse tree for every sentence in the treebank. Having a fully expanded treebank is crucial for developing end to end parsers which produce complete trees. We present a fully expanded dependency treebank for Telugu consisting of 3220 sentences. In this paper, we also convert the treebank annotated with Anncorra part-of-speech tagset to the latest BIS tagset. The BIS tagset is a hierarchical tagset adopted as a unified part-of-speech standard across all Indian Languages. The final treebank is made publicly available.

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AbuseAnalyzer: Abuse Detection, Severity and Target Prediction for Gab Posts
Mohit Chandra | Ashwin Pathak | Eesha Dutta | Paryul Jain | Manish Gupta | Manish Shrivastava | Ponnurangam Kumaraguru
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

While extensive popularity of online social media platforms has made information dissemination faster, it has also resulted in widespread online abuse of different types like hate speech, offensive language, sexist and racist opinions, etc. Detection and curtailment of such abusive content is critical for avoiding its psychological impact on victim communities, and thereby preventing hate crimes. Previous works have focused on classifying user posts into various forms of abusive behavior. But there has hardly been any focus on estimating the severity of abuse and the target. In this paper, we present a first of the kind dataset with 7,601 posts from Gab which looks at online abuse from the perspective of presence of abuse, severity and target of abusive behavior. We also propose a system to address these tasks, obtaining an accuracy of ∼80% for abuse presence, ∼82% for abuse target prediction, and ∼65% for abuse severity prediction.

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Creation of Corpus and analysis in Code-Mixed Kannada-English Twitter data for Emotion Prediction
Abhinav Reddy Appidi | Vamshi Krishna Srirangam | Darsi Suhas | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Emotion prediction is a critical task in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). There has been a significant amount of work done in emotion prediction for resource-rich languages. There has been work done on code-mixed social media corpus but not on emotion prediction of Kannada-English code-mixed Twitter data. In this paper, we analyze the problem of emotion prediction on corpus obtained from code-mixed Kannada-English extracted from Twitter annotated with their respective ‘Emotion’ for each tweet. We experimented with machine learning prediction models using features like Character N-Grams, Word N-Grams, Repetitive characters, and others on SVM and LSTM on our corpus, which resulted in an accuracy of 30% and 32% respectively.

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Hindi TimeBank: An ISO-TimeML Annotated Reference Corpus
Pranav Goel | Suhan Prabhu | Alok Debnath | Priyank Modi | Manish Shrivastava
16th Joint ACL - ISO Workshop on Interoperable Semantic Annotation PROCEEDINGS

ISO-TimeML is an international standard for multilingual event annotation, detection, categorization and linking. In this paper, we present the Hindi TimeBank, an ISO-TimeML annotated reference corpus for the detection and classification of events, states and time expressions, and the links between them. Based on contemporary developments in Hindi event recognition, we propose language independent and language-specific deviations from the ISO-TimeML guidelines, but preserve the schema. These deviations include the inclusion of annotator confidence, and an independent mechanism of identifying and annotating states such as copulars and existentials) With this paper, we present an open-source corpus, the Hindi TimeBank. The Hindi TimeBank is a 1,000 article dataset, with over 25,000 events, 3,500 states and 2,000 time expressions. We analyze the dataset in detail and provide a class-wise distribution of events, states and time expressions. Our guidelines and dataset are backed by high average inter-annotator agreement scores.

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Detection and Annotation of Events in Kannada
Suhan Prabhu | Ujwal Narayan | Alok Debnath | Sumukh S | Manish Shrivastava
16th Joint ACL - ISO Workshop on Interoperable Semantic Annotation PROCEEDINGS

In this paper, we provide the basic guidelines towards the detection and linguistic analysis of events in Kannada. Kannada is a morphologically rich, resource poor Dravidian language spoken in southern India. As most information retrieval and extraction tasks are resource intensive, very little work has been done on Kannada NLP, with almost no efforts in discourse analysis and dataset creation for representing events or other semantic annotations in the text. In this paper, we linguistically analyze what constitutes an event in this language, the challenges faced with discourse level annotation and representation due to the rich derivational morphology of the language that allows free word order, numerous multi-word expressions, adverbial participle constructions and constraints on subject-verb relations. Therefore, this paper is one of the first attempts at a large scale discourse level annotation for Kannada, which can be used for semantic annotation and corpus development for other tasks in the language.

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A Multi-Dimensional View of Aggression when voicing Opinion
Arjit Srivastava | Avijit Vajpayee | Syed Sarfaraz Akhtar | Naman Jain | Vinay Singh | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Trolling, Aggression and Cyberbullying

The advent of social media has immensely proliferated the amount of opinions and arguments voiced on the internet. These virtual debates often present cases of aggression. While research has been focused largely on analyzing aggression and stance in isolation from each other, this work is the first attempt to gain an extensive and fine-grained understanding of patterns of aggression and figurative language use when voicing opinion. We present a Hindi-English code-mixed dataset of opinion on the politico-social issue of ‘2016 India banknote demonetisation‘ and annotate it across multiple dimensions such as aggression, hate speech, emotion arousal and figurative language usage (such as sarcasm/irony, metaphors/similes, puns/word-play).

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Word Embeddings as Tuples of Feature Probabilities
Siddharth Bhat | Alok Debnath | Souvik Banerjee | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

In this paper, we provide an alternate perspective on word representations, by reinterpreting the dimensions of the vector space of a word embedding as a collection of features. In this reinterpretation, every component of the word vector is normalized against all the word vectors in the vocabulary. This idea now allows us to view each vector as an n-tuple (akin to a fuzzy set), where n is the dimensionality of the word representation and each element represents the probability of the word possessing a feature. Indeed, this representation enables the use fuzzy set theoretic operations, such as union, intersection and difference. Unlike previous attempts, we show that this representation of words provides a notion of similarity which is inherently asymmetric and hence closer to human similarity judgements. We compare the performance of this representation with various benchmarks, and explore some of the unique properties including function word detection, detection of polysemous words, and some insight into the interpretability provided by set theoretic operations.

2019

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Answering Naturally: Factoid to Full length Answer Generation
Vaishali Pal | Manish Shrivastava | Irshad Bhat
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on New Frontiers in Summarization

In recent years, the task of Question Answering over passages, also pitched as a reading comprehension, has evolved into a very active research area. A reading comprehension system extracts a span of text, comprising of named entities, dates, small phrases, etc., which serve as the answer to a given question. However, these spans of text would result in an unnatural reading experience in a conversational system. Usually, dialogue systems solve this issue by using template-based language generation. These systems, though adequate for a domain specific task, are too restrictive and predefined for a domain independent system. In order to present the user with a more conversational experience, we propose a pointer generator based full-length answer generator which can be used with most QA systems. Our system generates a full length answer given a question and the extracted factoid/span answer without relying on the passage from where the answer was extracted. We also present a dataset of 315000 question, factoid answer and full length answer triples. We have evaluated our system using ROUGE-1,2,L and BLEU and achieved 74.05 BLEU score and 86.25 Rogue-L score.

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Predicting Algorithm Classes for Programming Word Problems
Vinayak Athavale | Aayush Naik | Rajas Vanjape | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2019)

We introduce the task of algorithm class prediction for programming word problems. A programming word problem is a problem written in natural language, which can be solved using an algorithm or a program. We define classes of various programming word problems which correspond to the class of algorithms required to solve the problem. We present four new datasets for this task, two multiclass datasets with 550 and 1159 problems each and two multilabel datasets having 3737 and 3960 problems each. We pose the problem as a text classification problem and train neural network and non-neural network based models on this task. Our best performing classifier gets an accuracy of 62.7 percent for the multiclass case on the five class classification dataset, Codeforces Multiclass-5 (CFMC5). We also do some human-level analysis and compare human performance with that of our text classification models. Our best classifier has an accuracy only 9 percent lower than that of a human on this task. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported results on such a task. We make our code and datasets publicly available.

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Corpus Creation and Analysis for Named Entity Recognition in Telugu-English Code-Mixed Social Media Data
Vamshi Krishna Srirangam | Appidi Abhinav Reddy | Vinay Singh | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Named Entity Recognition(NER) is one of the important tasks in Natural Language Processing(NLP) and also is a subtask of Information Extraction. In this paper we present our work on NER in Telugu-English code-mixed social media data. Code-Mixing, a progeny of multilingualism is a way in which multilingual people express themselves on social media by using linguistics units from different languages within a sentence or speech context. Entity Extraction from social media data such as tweets(twitter) is in general difficult due to its informal nature, code-mixed data further complicates the problem due to its informal, unstructured and incomplete information. We present a Telugu-English code-mixed corpus with the corresponding named entity tags. The named entities used to tag data are Person(‘Per’), Organization(‘Org’) and Location(‘Loc’). We experimented with the machine learning models Conditional Random Fields(CRFs), Decision Trees and BiLSTMs on our corpus which resulted in a F1-score of 0.96, 0.94 and 0.95 respectively.

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De-Mixing Sentiment from Code-Mixed Text
Yash Kumar Lal | Vaibhav Kumar | Mrinal Dhar | Manish Shrivastava | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Code-mixing is the phenomenon of mixing the vocabulary and syntax of multiple languages in the same sentence. It is an increasingly common occurrence in today’s multilingual society and poses a big challenge when encountered in different downstream tasks. In this paper, we present a hybrid architecture for the task of Sentiment Analysis of English-Hindi code-mixed data. Our method consists of three components, each seeking to alleviate different issues. We first generate subword level representations for the sentences using a CNN architecture. The generated representations are used as inputs to a Dual Encoder Network which consists of two different BiLSTMs - the Collective and Specific Encoder. The Collective Encoder captures the overall sentiment of the sentence, while the Specific Encoder utilizes an attention mechanism in order to focus on individual sentiment-bearing sub-words. This, combined with a Feature Network consisting of orthographic features and specially trained word embeddings, achieves state-of-the-art results - 83.54% accuracy and 0.827 F1 score - on a benchmark dataset.

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A3-108 Machine Translation System for LoResMT 2019
Saumitra Yadav | Vandan Mujadia | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Technologies for MT of Low Resource Languages

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Using Syntax to Resolve NPE in English
Payal Khullar | Allen Antony | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2019)

This paper describes a novel, syntax-based system for automatic detection and resolution of Noun Phrase Ellipsis (NPE) in English. The system takes in free input English text, detects the site of nominal elision, and if present, selects potential antecedent candidates. The rules are built using the syntactic information on ellipsis and its antecedent discussed in previous theoretical linguistics literature on NPE. Additionally, we prepare a curated dataset of 337 sentences from well-known, reliable sources, containing positive and negative samples of NPE. We split this dataset into two parts, and use one part to refine our rules and the other to test the performance of our final system. We get an F1-score of 76.47% for detection and 70.27% for NPE resolution on the testset. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first system that detects and resolves NPE in English. The curated dataset used for this task, albeit small, covers a wide variety of NPE cases and will be made public for future work.

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A Pregroup Representation of Word Order Alternation Using Hindi Syntax
Alok Debnath | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Pregroup calculus has been used for the representation of free word order languages (Sanskrit and Hungarian), using a construction called precyclicity. However, restricted word order alternation has not been handled before. This paper aims at introducing and formally expressing three methods of representing word order alternation in the pregroup representation of any language. This paper describes the word order alternation patterns of Hindi, and creates a basic pregroup representation for the language. In doing so, the shortcoming of correct reductions for ungrammatical sentences due to the current apparatus is highlighted, and the aforementioned methods are invoked for a grammatically accurate representation of restricted word order alternation. The replicability of these methods is explained in the representation of adverbs and prepositional phrases in English.

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FERMI at SemEval-2019 Task 5: Using Sentence embeddings to Identify Hate Speech Against Immigrants and Women in Twitter
Vijayasaradhi Indurthi | Bakhtiyar Syed | Manish Shrivastava | Nikhil Chakravartula | Manish Gupta | Vasudeva Varma
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our system (Fermi) for Task 5 of SemEval-2019: HatEval: Multilingual Detection of Hate Speech Against Immigrants and Women on Twitter. We participated in the subtask A for English and ranked first in the evaluation on the test set. We evaluate the quality of multiple sentence embeddings and explore multiple training models to evaluate the performance of simple yet effective embedding-ML combination algorithms. Our team - Fermi’s model achieved an accuracy of 65.00% for English language in task A. Our models, which use pretrained Universal Encoder sentence embeddings for transforming the input and SVM (with RBF kernel) for classification, scored first position (among 68) in the leaderboard on the test set for Subtask A in English language. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the approach, as well as the results obtained in the task.

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Fermi at SemEval-2019 Task 6: Identifying and Categorizing Offensive Language in Social Media using Sentence Embeddings
Vijayasaradhi Indurthi | Bakhtiyar Syed | Manish Shrivastava | Manish Gupta | Vasudeva Varma
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our system (Fermi) for Task 6: OffensEval: Identifying and Categorizing Offensive Language in Social Media of SemEval-2019. We participated in all the three sub-tasks within Task 6. We evaluate multiple sentence embeddings in conjunction with various supervised machine learning algorithms and evaluate the performance of simple yet effective embedding-ML combination algorithms. Our team Fermi’s model achieved an F1-score of 64.40%, 62.00% and 62.60% for sub-task A, B and C respectively on the official leaderboard. Our model for sub-task C which uses pre-trained ELMo embeddings for transforming the input and uses SVM (RBF kernel) for training, scored third position on the official leaderboard. Through the paper we provide a detailed description of the approach, as well as the results obtained for the task.

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Fermi at SemEval-2019 Task 8: An elementary but effective approach to Question Discernment in Community QA Forums
Bakhtiyar Syed | Vijayasaradhi Indurthi | Manish Shrivastava | Manish Gupta | Vasudeva Varma
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Online Community Question Answering Forums (cQA) have gained massive popularity within recent years. The rise in users for such forums have led to the increase in the need for automated evaluation for question comprehension and fact evaluation of the answers provided by various participants in the forum. Our team, Fermi, participated in sub-task A of Task 8 at SemEval 2019 - which tackles the first problem in the pipeline of factual evaluation in cQA forums, i.e., deciding whether a posed question asks for a factual information, an opinion/advice or is just socializing. This information is highly useful in segregating factual questions from non-factual ones which highly helps in organizing the questions into useful categories and trims down the problem space for the next task in the pipeline for fact evaluation among the available answers. Our system uses the embeddings obtained from Universal Sentence Encoder combined with XGBoost for the classification sub-task A. We also evaluate other combinations of embeddings and off-the-shelf machine learning algorithms to demonstrate the efficacy of the various representations and their combinations. Our results across the evaluation test set gave an accuracy of 84% and received the first position in the final standings judged by the organizers.

2018

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Humor Detection in English-Hindi Code-Mixed Social Media Content : Corpus and Baseline System
Ankush Khandelwal | Sahil Swami | Syed S. Akhtar | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Universal Dependency Parsing for Hindi-English Code-Switching
Irshad Bhat | Riyaz A. Bhat | Manish Shrivastava | Dipti Sharma
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Code-switching is a phenomenon of mixing grammatical structures of two or more languages under varied social constraints. The code-switching data differ so radically from the benchmark corpora used in NLP community that the application of standard technologies to these data degrades their performance sharply. Unlike standard corpora, these data often need to go through additional processes such as language identification, normalization and/or back-transliteration for their efficient processing. In this paper, we investigate these indispensable processes and other problems associated with syntactic parsing of code-switching data and propose methods to mitigate their effects. In particular, we study dependency parsing of code-switching data of Hindi and English multilingual speakers from Twitter. We present a treebank of Hindi-English code-switching tweets under Universal Dependencies scheme and propose a neural stacking model for parsing that efficiently leverages the part-of-speech tag and syntactic tree annotations in the code-switching treebank and the preexisting Hindi and English treebanks. We also present normalization and back-transliteration models with a decoding process tailored for code-switching data. Results show that our neural stacking parser is 1.5% LAS points better than the augmented parsing model and 3.8% LAS points better than the one which uses first-best normalization and/or back-transliteration.

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Corpus Creation and Emotion Prediction for Hindi-English Code-Mixed Social Media Text
Deepanshu Vijay | Aditya Bohra | Vinay Singh | Syed Sarfaraz Akhtar | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Emotion Prediction is a Natural Language Processing (NLP) task dealing with detection and classification of emotions in various monolingual and bilingual texts. While some work has been done on code-mixed social media text and in emotion prediction separately, our work is the first attempt which aims at identifying the emotion associated with Hindi-English code-mixed social media text. In this paper, we analyze the problem of emotion identification in code-mixed content and present a Hindi-English code-mixed corpus extracted from twitter and annotated with the associated emotion. For every tweet in the dataset, we annotate the source language of all the words present, and also the causal language of the expressed emotion. Finally, we propose a supervised classification system which uses various machine learning techniques for detecting the emotion associated with the text using a variety of character level, word level, and lexicon based features.

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Twitter corpus of Resource-Scarce Languages for Sentiment Analysis and Multilingual Emoji Prediction
Nurendra Choudhary | Rajat Singh | Vijjini Anvesh Rao | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we leverage social media platforms such as twitter for developing corpus across multiple languages. The corpus creation methodology is applicable for resource-scarce languages provided the speakers of that particular language are active users on social media platforms. We present an approach to extract social media microblogs such as tweets (Twitter). In this paper, we create corpus for multilingual sentiment analysis and emoji prediction in Hindi, Bengali and Telugu. Further, we perform and analyze multiple NLP tasks utilizing the corpus to get interesting observations.

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Exploring Chunk Based Templates for Generating a subset of English Text
Nikhilesh Bhatnagar | Manish Shrivastava | Radhika Mamidi
Proceedings of ACL 2018, Student Research Workshop

Natural Language Generation (NLG) is a research task which addresses the automatic generation of natural language text representative of an input non-linguistic collection of knowledge. In this paper, we address the task of the generation of grammatical sentences in an isolated context given a partial bag-of-words which the generated sentence must contain. We view the task as a search problem (a problem of choice) involving combinations of smaller chunk based templates extracted from a training corpus to construct a complete sentence. To achieve that, we propose a fitness function which we use in conjunction with an evolutionary algorithm as the search procedure to arrive at a potentially grammatical sentence (modeled by the fitness score) which satisfies the input constraints.

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Automatic Question Generation using Relative Pronouns and Adverbs
Payal Khullar | Konigari Rachna | Mukul Hase | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of ACL 2018, Student Research Workshop

This paper presents a system that automatically generates multiple, natural language questions using relative pronouns and relative adverbs from complex English sentences. Our system is syntax-based, runs on dependency parse information of a single-sentence input, and achieves high accuracy in terms of syntactic correctness, semantic adequacy, fluency and uniqueness. One of the key advantages of our system, in comparison with other rule-based approaches, is that we nearly eliminate the chances of getting a wrong wh-word in the generated question, by fetching the requisite wh-word from the input sentence itself. Depending upon the input, we generate both factoid and descriptive type questions. To the best of our information, the exploitation of wh-pronouns and wh-adverbs to generate questions is novel in the Automatic Question Generation task.

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A Dataset of Hindi-English Code-Mixed Social Media Text for Hate Speech Detection
Aditya Bohra | Deepanshu Vijay | Vinay Singh | Syed Sarfaraz Akhtar | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Modeling of People’s Opinions, Personality, and Emotions in Social Media

Hate speech detection in social media texts is an important Natural language Processing task, which has several crucial applications like sentiment analysis, investigating cyberbullying and examining socio-political controversies. While relevant research has been done independently on code-mixed social media texts and hate speech detection, our work is the first attempt in detecting hate speech in Hindi-English code-mixed social media text. In this paper, we analyze the problem of hate speech detection in code-mixed texts and present a Hindi-English code-mixed dataset consisting of tweets posted online on Twitter. The tweets are annotated with the language at word level and the class they belong to (Hate Speech or Normal Speech). We also propose a supervised classification system for detecting hate speech in the text using various character level, word level, and lexicon based features.

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Named Entity Recognition for Hindi-English Code-Mixed Social Media Text
Vinay Singh | Deepanshu Vijay | Syed Sarfaraz Akhtar | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the Seventh Named Entities Workshop

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a major task in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP), and also is a sub-task of Information Extraction. The challenge of NER for tweets lie in the insufficient information available in a tweet. There has been a significant amount of work done related to entity extraction, but only for resource rich languages and domains such as newswire. Entity extraction is, in general, a challenging task for such an informal text, and code-mixed text further complicates the process with it’s unstructured and incomplete information. We propose experiments with different machine learning classification algorithms with word, character and lexical features. The algorithms we experimented with are Decision tree, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Conditional Random Field (CRF). In this paper, we present a corpus for NER in Hindi-English Code-Mixed along with extensive experiments on our machine learning models which achieved the best f1-score of 0.95 with both CRF and LSTM.

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Transliteration Better than Translation? Answering Code-mixed Questions over a Knowledge Base
Vishal Gupta | Manoj Chinnakotla | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

Humans can learn multiple languages. If they know a fact in one language, they can answer a question in another language they understand. They can also answer Code-mix (CM) questions: questions which contain both languages. This behavior is attributed to the unique learning ability of humans. Our task aims to study if machines can achieve this. We demonstrate how effectively a machine can answer CM questions. In this work, we adopt a two phase approach: candidate generation and candidate re-ranking to answer questions. We propose a Triplet-Siamese-Hybrid CNN (TSHCNN) to re-rank candidate answers. We show experiments on the SimpleQuestions dataset. Our network is trained only on English questions provided in this dataset and noisy Hindi translations of these questions and can answer English-Hindi CM questions effectively without the need of translation into English. Back-transliterated CM questions outperform their lexical and sentence level translated counterparts by 5% & 35% in accuracy respectively, highlighting the efficacy of our approach in a resource constrained setting.

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Gold Corpus for Telegraphic Summarization
Chanakya Malireddy | Srivenkata N M Somisetty | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Linguistic Resources for Natural Language Processing

Most extractive summarization techniques operate by ranking all the source sentences and then select the top ranked sentences as the summary. Such methods are known to produce good summaries, especially when applied to news articles and scientific texts. However, they don’t fare so well when applied to texts such as fictional narratives, which don’t have a single central or recurrent theme. This is because usually the information or plot of the story is spread across several sentences. In this paper, we discuss a different summarization technique called Telegraphic Summarization. Here, we don’t select whole sentences, rather pick short segments of text spread across sentences, as the summary. We have tailored a set of guidelines to create such summaries and, using the same, annotate a gold corpus of 200 English short stories.

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Enabling Code-Mixed Translation: Parallel Corpus Creation and MT Augmentation Approach
Mrinal Dhar | Vaibhav Kumar | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Linguistic Resources for Natural Language Processing

Code-mixing, use of two or more languages in a single sentence, is ubiquitous; generated by multi-lingual speakers across the world. The phenomenon presents itself prominently in social media discourse. Consequently, there is a growing need for translating code-mixed hybrid language into standard languages. However, due to the lack of gold parallel data, existing machine translation systems fail to properly translate code-mixed text. In an effort to initiate the task of machine translation of code-mixed content, we present a newly created parallel corpus of code-mixed English-Hindi and English. We selected previously available English-Hindi code-mixed data as a starting point for the creation of our parallel corpus. We then chose 4 human translators, fluent in both English and Hindi, for translating the 6088 code-mixed English-Hindi sentences to English. With the help of the created parallel corpus, we analyzed the structure of English-Hindi code-mixed data and present a technique to augment run-of-the-mill machine translation (MT) approaches that can help achieve superior translations without the need for specially designed translation systems. We present an augmentation pipeline for existing MT approaches, like Phrase Based MT (Moses) and Neural MT, to improve the translation of code-mixed text. The augmentation pipeline is presented as a pre-processing step and can be plugged with any existing MT system, which we demonstrate by improving translations done by systems like Moses, Google Neural Machine Translation System (NMTS) and Bing Translator for English-Hindi code-mixed content.

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Degree based Classification of Harmful Speech using Twitter Data
Sanjana Sharma | Saksham Agrawal | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Trolling, Aggression and Cyberbullying (TRAC-2018)

Harmful speech has various forms and it has been plaguing the social media in different ways. If we need to crackdown different degrees of hate speech and abusive behavior amongst it, the classification needs to be based on complex ramifications which needs to be defined and hold accountable for, other than racist, sexist or against some particular group and community. This paper primarily describes how we created an ontological classification of harmful speech based on degree of hateful intent and used it to annotate twitter data accordingly. The key contribution of this paper is the new dataset of tweets we created based on ontological classes and degrees of harmful speech found in the text. We also propose supervised classification system for recognizing these respective harmful speech classes in the texts hence. This serves as a preliminary work to lay down foundation on defining different classes of harmful speech and subsequent work will be done in making it’s automatic detection more robust and efficient.

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Aggression Detection on Social Media Text Using Deep Neural Networks
Vinay Singh | Aman Varshney | Syed Sarfaraz Akhtar | Deepanshu Vijay | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Abusive Language Online (ALW2)

In the past few years, bully and aggressive posts on social media have grown significantly, causing serious consequences for victims/users of all demographics. Majority of the work in this field has been done for English only. In this paper, we introduce a deep learning based classification system for Facebook posts and comments of Hindi-English Code-Mixed text to detect the aggressive behaviour of/towards users. Our work focuses on text from users majorly in the Indian Subcontinent. The dataset that we used for our models is provided by TRAC-1in their shared task. Our classification model assigns each Facebook post/comment to one of the three predefined categories: “Overtly Aggressive”, “Covertly Aggressive” and “Non-Aggressive”. We experimented with 6 classification models and our CNN model on a 10 K-fold cross-validation gave the best result with the prediction accuracy of 73.2%.

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Retrieve and Re-rank: A Simple and Effective IR Approach to Simple Question Answering over Knowledge Graphs
Vishal Gupta | Manoj Chinnakotla | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

SimpleQuestions is a commonly used benchmark for single-factoid question answering (QA) over Knowledge Graphs (KG). Existing QA systems rely on various components to solve different sub-tasks of the problem (such as entity detection, entity linking, relation prediction and evidence integration). In this work, we propose a different approach to the problem and present an information retrieval style solution for it. We adopt a two-phase approach: candidate generation and candidate re-ranking to answer questions. We propose a Triplet-Siamese-Hybrid CNN (TSHCNN) to re-rank candidate answers. Our approach achieves an accuracy of 80% which sets a new state-of-the-art on the SimpleQuestions dataset.

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Too Many Questions? What Can We Do? : Multiple Question Span Detection
Prathyusha Danda | Brij Mohan Lal Srivastava | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 32nd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

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BoWLer: A neural approach to extractive text summarization
Pranav Dhakras | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 32nd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

2017

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Transition-Based Deep Input Linearization
Ratish Puduppully | Yue Zhang | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

Traditional methods for deep NLG adopt pipeline approaches comprising stages such as constructing syntactic input, predicting function words, linearizing the syntactic input and generating the surface forms. Though easier to visualize, pipeline approaches suffer from error propagation. In addition, information available across modules cannot be leveraged by all modules. We construct a transition-based model to jointly perform linearization, function word prediction and morphological generation, which considerably improves upon the accuracy compared to a pipelined baseline system. On a standard deep input linearization shared task, our system achieves the best results reported so far.

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Joining Hands: Exploiting Monolingual Treebanks for Parsing of Code-mixing Data
Irshad Bhat | Riyaz A. Bhat | Manish Shrivastava | Dipti Sharma
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers

In this paper, we propose efficient and less resource-intensive strategies for parsing of code-mixed data. These strategies are not constrained by in-domain annotations, rather they leverage pre-existing monolingual annotated resources for training. We show that these methods can produce significantly better results as compared to an informed baseline. Due to lack of an evaluation set for code-mixed structures, we also present a data set of 450 Hindi and English code-mixed tweets of Hindi multilingual speakers for evaluation.

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Injecting Word Embeddings with Another Language’s Resource : An Application of Bilingual Embeddings
Prakhar Pandey | Vikram Pudi | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Word embeddings learned from text corpus can be improved by injecting knowledge from external resources, while at the same time also specializing them for similarity or relatedness. These knowledge resources (like WordNet, Paraphrase Database) may not exist for all languages. In this work we introduce a method to inject word embeddings of a language with knowledge resource of another language by leveraging bilingual embeddings. First we improve word embeddings of German, Italian, French and Spanish using resources of English and test them on variety of word similarity tasks. Then we demonstrate the utility of our method by creating improved embeddings for Urdu and Telugu languages using Hindi WordNet, beating the previously established baseline for Urdu.

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Deep Neural Network based system for solving Arithmetic Word problems
Purvanshi Mehta | Pruthwik Mishra | Vinayak Athavale | Manish Shrivastava | Dipti Sharma
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, System Demonstrations

This paper presents DILTON a system which solves simple arithmetic word problems. DILTON uses a Deep Neural based model to solve math word problems. DILTON divides the question into two parts - worldstate and query. The worldstate and the query are processed separately in two different networks and finally, the networks are merged to predict the final operation. We report the first deep learning approach for the prediction of operation between two numbers. DILTON learns to predict operations with 88.81% accuracy in a corpus of primary school questions.

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Word Similarity Datasets for Indian Languages: Annotation and Baseline Systems
Syed Sarfaraz Akhtar | Arihant Gupta | Avijit Vajpayee | Arjit Srivastava | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 11th Linguistic Annotation Workshop

With the advent of word representations, word similarity tasks are becoming increasing popular as an evaluation metric for the quality of the representations. In this paper, we present manually annotated monolingual word similarity datasets of six Indian languages - Urdu, Telugu, Marathi, Punjabi, Tamil and Gujarati. These languages are most spoken Indian languages worldwide after Hindi and Bengali. For the construction of these datasets, our approach relies on translation and re-annotation of word similarity datasets of English. We also present baseline scores for word representation models using state-of-the-art techniques for Urdu, Telugu and Marathi by evaluating them on newly created word similarity datasets.

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Beyond Word2Vec: Embedding Words and Phrases in Same Vector Space
Vijay Prakash Dwivedi | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON-2017)

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End to End Dialog System for Telugu
Prathyusha Danda | Prathyusha Jwalapuram | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON-2017)

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Exploiting Morphological Regularities in Distributional Word Representations
Arihant Gupta | Syed Sarfaraz Akhtar | Avijit Vajpayee | Arjit Srivastava | Madan Gopal Jhanwar | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present an unsupervised, language agnostic approach for exploiting morphological regularities present in high dimensional vector spaces. We propose a novel method for generating embeddings of words from their morphological variants using morphological transformation operators. We evaluate this approach on MSR word analogy test set with an accuracy of 85% which is 12% higher than the previous best known system.

2016

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Transition-Based Syntactic Linearization with Lookahead Features
Ratish Puduppully | Yue Zhang | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Shallow Parsing Pipeline - Hindi-English Code-Mixed Social Media Text
Arnav Sharma | Sakshi Gupta | Raveesh Motlani | Piyush Bansal | Manish Shrivastava | Radhika Mamidi | Dipti M. Sharma
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Kathaa: A Visual Programming Framework for NLP Applications
Sharada Prasanna Mohanty | Nehal J Wani | Manish Srivastava | Dipti Misra Sharma
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations

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Hand in Glove: Deep Feature Fusion Network Architectures for Answer Quality Prediction in Community Question Answering
Sai Praneeth Suggu | Kushwanth Naga Goutham | Manoj K. Chinnakotla | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Community Question Answering (cQA) forums have become a popular medium for soliciting direct answers to specific questions of users from experts or other experienced users on a given topic. However, for a given question, users sometimes have to sift through a large number of low-quality or irrelevant answers to find out the answer which satisfies their information need. To alleviate this, the problem of Answer Quality Prediction (AQP) aims to predict the quality of an answer posted in response to a forum question. Current AQP systems either learn models using - a) various hand-crafted features (HCF) or b) Deep Learning (DL) techniques which automatically learn the required feature representations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for AQP known as - “Deep Feature Fusion Network (DFFN)” which combines the advantages of both hand-crafted features and deep learning based systems. Given a question-answer pair along with its metadata, the DFFN architecture independently - a) learns features from the Deep Neural Network (DNN) and b) computes hand-crafted features using various external resources and then combines them using a fully connected neural network trained to predict the final answer quality. DFFN is end-end differentiable and trained as a single system. We propose two different DFFN architectures which vary mainly in the way they model the input question/answer pair - DFFN-CNN uses a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and DFFN-BLNA uses a Bi-directional LSTM with Neural Attention (BLNA). Both these proposed variants of DFFN (DFFN-CNN and DFFN-BLNA) achieve state-of-the-art performance on the standard SemEval-2015 and SemEval-2016 benchmark datasets and outperforms baseline approaches which individually employ either HCF or DL based techniques alone.

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Towards Sub-Word Level Compositions for Sentiment Analysis of Hindi-English Code Mixed Text
Aditya Joshi | Ameya Prabhu | Manish Shrivastava | Vasudeva Varma
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Sentiment analysis (SA) using code-mixed data from social media has several applications in opinion mining ranging from customer satisfaction to social campaign analysis in multilingual societies. Advances in this area are impeded by the lack of a suitable annotated dataset. We introduce a Hindi-English (Hi-En) code-mixed dataset for sentiment analysis and perform empirical analysis comparing the suitability and performance of various state-of-the-art SA methods in social media. In this paper, we introduce learning sub-word level representations in our LSTM (Subword-LSTM) architecture instead of character-level or word-level representations. This linguistic prior in our architecture enables us to learn the information about sentiment value of important morphemes. This also seems to work well in highly noisy text containing misspellings as shown in our experiments which is demonstrated in morpheme-level feature maps learned by our model. Also, we hypothesize that encoding this linguistic prior in the Subword-LSTM architecture leads to the superior performance. Our system attains accuracy 4-5% greater than traditional approaches on our dataset, and also outperforms the available system for sentiment analysis in Hi-En code-mixed text by 18%.

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Together we stand: Siamese Networks for Similar Question Retrieval
Arpita Das | Harish Yenala | Manoj Chinnakotla | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Kathaa : NLP Systems as Edge-Labeled Directed Acyclic MultiGraphs
Sharada Mohanty | Nehal J Wani | Manish Srivastava | Dipti Sharma
Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Worldwide Language Service Infrastructure and Second Workshop on Open Infrastructures and Analysis Frameworks for Human Language Technologies (WLSI/OIAF4HLT2016)

We present Kathaa, an Open Source web-based Visual Programming Framework for Natural Language Processing (NLP) Systems. Kathaa supports the design, execution and analysis of complex NLP systems by visually connecting NLP components from an easily extensible Module Library. It models NLP systems an edge-labeled Directed Acyclic MultiGraph, and lets the user use publicly co-created modules in their own NLP applications irrespective of their technical proficiency in Natural Language Processing. Kathaa exposes an intuitive web based Interface for the users to interact with and modify complex NLP Systems; and a precise Module definition API to allow easy integration of new state of the art NLP components. Kathaa enables researchers to publish their services in a standardized format to enable the masses to use their services out of the box. The vision of this work is to pave the way for a system like Kathaa, to be the Lego blocks of NLP Research and Applications. As a practical use case we use Kathaa to visually implement the Sampark Hindi-Panjabi Machine Translation Pipeline and the Sampark Hindi-Urdu Machine Translation Pipeline, to demonstrate the fact that Kathaa can handle really complex NLP systems while still being intuitive for the end user.

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Towards Deep Learning in Hindi NER: An approach to tackle the Labelled Data Sparsity
Vinayak Athavale | Shreenivas Bharadwaj | Monik Pamecha | Ameya Prabhu | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Vaidya: A Spoken Dialog System for Health Domain
Prathyusha Danda | Brij Mohan Lal Srivastava | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Natural Language Processing

2014

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Do not do processing, when you can look up: Towards a Discrimination Net for WSD
Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Raj Dabre | Siddhartha Gunti | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the Seventh Global Wordnet Conference

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PaCMan : Parallel Corpus Management Workbench
Diptesh Kanojia | Manish Shrivastava | Raj Dabre | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Natural Language Processing

2006

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Morphological Richness Offsets Resource Demand – Experiences in Constructing a POS Tagger for Hindi
Smriti Singh | Kuhoo Gupta | Manish Shrivastava | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the COLING/ACL 2006 Main Conference Poster Sessions

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