Leo Born


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Dataset Reproducibility and IR Methods in Timeline Summarization
Leo Born | Maximilian Bacher | Katja Markert
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Timeline summarization (TLS) generates a dated overview of real-world events based on event-specific corpora. The two standard datasets for this task were collected using Google searches for news reports on given events. Not only is this IR method not reproducible at different search times, it also uses components (such as document popularity) that are not always available for any large news corpus. It is unclear how TLS algorithms fare when provided with event corpora collected with varying IR methods. We therefore construct event-specific corpora from a large static background corpus, the newsroom dataset, using differing, relatively simple IR methods based on raw text alone. We show that the choice of IR method plays a crucial role in the performance of various TLS algorithms. A weak TLS algorithm can even match a stronger one by employing a stronger IR method in the data collection phase. Furthermore, the results of TLS systems are often highly sensitive to additional sentence filtering. We consequently advocate for integrating IR into the development of TLS systems and having a common static background corpus for evaluation of TLS systems.


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Using Automatically Extracted Minimum Spans to Disentangle Coreference Evaluation from Boundary Detection
Nafise Sadat Moosavi | Leo Born | Massimo Poesio | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The common practice in coreference resolution is to identify and evaluate the maximum span of mentions. The use of maximum spans tangles coreference evaluation with the challenges of mention boundary detection like prepositional phrase attachment. To address this problem, minimum spans are manually annotated in smaller corpora. However, this additional annotation is costly and therefore, this solution does not scale to large corpora. In this paper, we propose the MINA algorithm for automatically extracting minimum spans to benefit from minimum span evaluation in all corpora. We show that the extracted minimum spans by MINA are consistent with those that are manually annotated by experts. Our experiments show that using minimum spans is in particular important in cross-dataset coreference evaluation, in which detected mention boundaries are noisier due to domain shift. We have integrated MINA into https://github.com/ns-moosavi/coval for reporting standard coreference scores based on both maximum and automatically detected minimum spans.


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Induction of a Large-Scale Knowledge Graph from the Regesta Imperii
Juri Opitz | Leo Born | Vivi Nastase
Proceedings of the Second Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

We induce and visualize a Knowledge Graph over the Regesta Imperii (RI), an important large-scale resource for medieval history research. The RI comprise more than 150,000 digitized abstracts of medieval charters issued by the Roman-German kings and popes distributed over many European locations and a time span of more than 700 years. Our goal is to provide a resource for historians to visualize and query the RI, possibly aiding medieval history research. The resulting medieval graph and visualization tools are shared publicly.


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Using a Graph-based Coherence Model in Document-Level Machine Translation
Leo Born | Mohsen Mesgar | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Discourse in Machine Translation

Although coherence is an important aspect of any text generation system, it has received little attention in the context of machine translation (MT) so far. We hypothesize that the quality of document-level translation can be improved if MT models take into account the semantic relations among sentences during translation. We integrate the graph-based coherence model proposed by Mesgar and Strube, (2016) with Docent (Hardmeier et al., 2012, Hardmeier, 2014) a document-level machine translation system. The application of this graph-based coherence modeling approach is novel in the context of machine translation. We evaluate the coherence model and its effects on the quality of the machine translation. The result of our experiments shows that our coherence model slightly improves the quality of translation in terms of the average Meteor score.

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A Mention-Ranking Model for Abstract Anaphora Resolution
Ana Marasović | Leo Born | Juri Opitz | Anette Frank
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Resolving abstract anaphora is an important, but difficult task for text understanding. Yet, with recent advances in representation learning this task becomes a more tangible aim. A central property of abstract anaphora is that it establishes a relation between the anaphor embedded in the anaphoric sentence and its (typically non-nominal) antecedent. We propose a mention-ranking model that learns how abstract anaphors relate to their antecedents with an LSTM-Siamese Net. We overcome the lack of training data by generating artificial anaphoric sentence–antecedent pairs. Our model outperforms state-of-the-art results on shell noun resolution. We also report first benchmark results on an abstract anaphora subset of the ARRAU corpus. This corpus presents a greater challenge due to a mixture of nominal and pronominal anaphors and a greater range of confounders. We found model variants that outperform the baselines for nominal anaphors, without training on individual anaphor data, but still lag behind for pronominal anaphors. Our model selects syntactically plausible candidates and – if disregarding syntax – discriminates candidates using deeper features.