Slot Tagging for Task Oriented Spoken Language Understanding in Human-to-Human Conversation Scenarios
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)
Task oriented language understanding (LU) in human-to-machine (H2M) conversations has been extensively studied for personal digital assistants. In this work, we extend the task oriented LU problem to human-to-human (H2H) conversations, focusing on the slot tagging task. Recent advances on LU in H2M conversations have shown accuracy improvements by adding encoded knowledge from different sources. Inspired by this, we explore several variants of a bidirectional LSTM architecture that relies on different knowledge sources, such as Web data, search engine click logs, expert feedback from H2M models, as well as previous utterances in the conversation. We also propose ensemble techniques that aggregate these different knowledge sources into a single model. Experimental evaluation on a four-turn Twitter dataset in the restaurant and music domains shows improvements in the slot tagging F1-score of up to 6.09% compared to existing approaches.
Neural Lexicons for Slot Tagging in Spoken Language Understanding
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Industry Papers)
We explore the use of lexicons or gazettes in neural models for slot tagging in spoken language understanding. We develop models that encode lexicon information as neural features for use in a Long-short term memory neural network. Experiments are performed on data from 4 domains from an intelligent assistant under conditions that often occur in an industry setting, where there may be: 1) large amounts of training data, 2) limited amounts of training data for new domains, and 3) cross domain training. Results show that the use of neural lexicon information leads to a significant improvement in slot tagging, with improvements in the F-score of up to 12%. Our findings have implications for how lexicons can be used to improve the performance of neural slot tagging models.