Kewei Tu


2020

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An Empirical Comparison of Unsupervised Constituency Parsing Methods
Jun Li | Yifan Cao | Jiong Cai | Yong Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Unsupervised constituency parsing aims to learn a constituency parser from a training corpus without parse tree annotations. While many methods have been proposed to tackle the problem, including statistical and neural methods, their experimental results are often not directly comparable due to discrepancies in datasets, data preprocessing, lexicalization, and evaluation metrics. In this paper, we first examine experimental settings used in previous work and propose to standardize the settings for better comparability between methods. We then empirically compare several existing methods, including decade-old and newly proposed ones, under the standardized settings on English and Japanese, two languages with different branching tendencies. We find that recent models do not show a clear advantage over decade-old models in our experiments. We hope our work can provide new insights into existing methods and facilitate future empirical evaluation of unsupervised constituency parsing.

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Structure-Level Knowledge Distillation For Multilingual Sequence Labeling
Xinyu Wang | Yong Jiang | Nguyen Bach | Tao Wang | Fei Huang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Multilingual sequence labeling is a task of predicting label sequences using a single unified model for multiple languages. Compared with relying on multiple monolingual models, using a multilingual model has the benefit of a smaller model size, easier in online serving, and generalizability to low-resource languages. However, current multilingual models still underperform individual monolingual models significantly due to model capacity limitations. In this paper, we propose to reduce the gap between monolingual models and the unified multilingual model by distilling the structural knowledge of several monolingual models (teachers) to the unified multilingual model (student). We propose two novel KD methods based on structure-level information: (1) approximately minimizes the distance between the student’s and the teachers’ structure-level probability distributions, (2) aggregates the structure-level knowledge to local distributions and minimizes the distance between two local probability distributions. Our experiments on 4 multilingual tasks with 25 datasets show that our approaches outperform several strong baselines and have stronger zero-shot generalizability than both the baseline model and teacher models.

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Towards Holistic and Automatic Evaluation of Open-Domain Dialogue Generation
Bo Pang | Erik Nijkamp | Wenjuan Han | Linqi Zhou | Yixian Liu | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Open-domain dialogue generation has gained increasing attention in Natural Language Processing. Its evaluation requires a holistic means. Human ratings are deemed as the gold standard. As human evaluation is inefficient and costly, an automated substitute is highly desirable. In this paper, we propose holistic evaluation metrics that capture different aspects of open-domain dialogues. Our metrics consist of (1) GPT-2 based context coherence between sentences in a dialogue, (2) GPT-2 based fluency in phrasing, (3) n-gram based diversity in responses to augmented queries, and (4) textual-entailment-inference based logical self-consistency. The empirical validity of our metrics is demonstrated by strong correlations with human judgments. We open source the code and relevant materials.

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Semi-Supervised Semantic Dependency Parsing Using CRF Autoencoders
Zixia Jia | Youmi Ma | Jiong Cai | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Semantic dependency parsing, which aims to find rich bi-lexical relationships, allows words to have multiple dependency heads, resulting in graph-structured representations. We propose an approach to semi-supervised learning of semantic dependency parsers based on the CRF autoencoder framework. Our encoder is a discriminative neural semantic dependency parser that predicts the latent parse graph of the input sentence. Our decoder is a generative neural model that reconstructs the input sentence conditioned on the latent parse graph. Our model is arc-factored and therefore parsing and learning are both tractable. Experiments show our model achieves significant and consistent improvement over the supervised baseline.

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Unsupervised Cross-Lingual Adaptation of Dependency Parsers Using CRF Autoencoders
Zhao Li | Kewei Tu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

We consider the task of cross-lingual adaptation of dependency parsers without annotated target corpora and parallel corpora. Previous work either directly applies a discriminative source parser to the target language, ignoring unannotated target corpora, or employs an unsupervised generative parser that can leverage unannotated target data but has weaker representational power than discriminative parsers. In this paper, we propose to utilize unsupervised discriminative parsers based on the CRF autoencoder framework for this task. We train a source parser and use it to initialize and regularize a target parser that is trained on unannotated target data. We conduct experiments that transfer an English parser to 20 target languages. The results show that our method significantly outperforms previous methods.

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Learning Numeral Embedding
Chengyue Jiang | Zhonglin Nian | Kaihao Guo | Shanbo Chu | Yinggong Zhao | Libin Shen | Kewei Tu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Word embedding is an essential building block for deep learning methods for natural language processing. Although word embedding has been extensively studied over the years, the problem of how to effectively embed numerals, a special subset of words, is still underexplored. Existing word embedding methods do not learn numeral embeddings well because there are an infinite number of numerals and their individual appearances in training corpora are highly scarce. In this paper, we propose two novel numeral embedding methods that can handle the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) problem for numerals. We first induce a finite set of prototype numerals using either a self-organizing map or a Gaussian mixture model. We then represent the embedding of a numeral as a weighted average of the prototype number embeddings. Numeral embeddings represented in this manner can be plugged into existing word embedding learning approaches such as skip-gram for training. We evaluated our methods and showed its effectiveness on four intrinsic and extrinsic tasks: word similarity, embedding numeracy, numeral prediction, and sequence labeling.

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An Investigation of Potential Function Designs for Neural CRF
Zechuan Hu | Yong Jiang | Nguyen Bach | Tao Wang | Zhongqiang Huang | Fei Huang | Kewei Tu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

The neural linear-chain CRF model is one of the most widely-used approach to sequence labeling. In this paper, we investigate a series of increasingly expressive potential functions for neural CRF models, which not only integrate the emission and transition functions, but also explicitly take the representations of the contextual words as input. Our extensive experiments show that the decomposed quadrilinear potential function based on the vector representations of two neighboring labels and two neighboring words consistently achieves the best performance.

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More Embeddings, Better Sequence Labelers?
Xinyu Wang | Yong Jiang | Nguyen Bach | Tao Wang | Zhongqiang Huang | Fei Huang | Kewei Tu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Recent work proposes a family of contextual embeddings that significantly improves the accuracy of sequence labelers over non-contextual embeddings. However, there is no definite conclusion on whether we can build better sequence labelers by combining different kinds of embeddings in various settings. In this paper, we conduct extensive experiments on 3 tasks over 18 datasets and 8 languages to study the accuracy of sequence labeling with various embedding concatenations and make three observations: (1) concatenating more embedding variants leads to better accuracy in rich-resource and cross-domain settings and some conditions of low-resource settings; (2) concatenating contextual sub-word embeddings with contextual character embeddings hurts the accuracy in extremely low-resource settings; (3) based on the conclusion of (1), concatenating additional similar contextual embeddings cannot lead to further improvements. We hope these conclusions can help people build stronger sequence labelers in various settings.

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Semi-Supervised Dependency Parsing with Arc-Factored Variational Autoencoding
Ge Wang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Mannual annotation for dependency parsing is both labourious and time costly, resulting in the difficulty to learn practical dependency parsers for many languages due to the lack of labelled training corpora. To compensate for the scarcity of labelled data, semi-supervised dependency parsing methods are developed to utilize unlabelled data in the training procedure of dependency parsers. In previous work, the autoencoder framework is a prevalent approach for the utilization of unlabelled data. In this framework, training sentences are reconstructed from a decoder conditioned on dependency trees predicted by an encoder. The tree structure requirement brings challenges for both the encoder and the decoder. Sophisticated techniques are employed to tackle these challenges at the expense of model complexity and approximations in encoding and decoding. In this paper, we propose a model based on the variational autoencoder framework. By relaxing the tree constraint in both the encoder and the decoder during training, we make the learning of our model fully arc-factored and thus circumvent the challenges brought by the tree constraint. We evaluate our model on datasets across several languages and the results demonstrate the advantage of our model over previous approaches in both parsing accuracy and speed.

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A Survey of Unsupervised Dependency Parsing
Wenjuan Han | Yong Jiang | Hwee Tou Ng | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Syntactic dependency parsing is an important task in natural language processing. Unsupervised dependency parsing aims to learn a dependency parser from sentences that have no annotation of their correct parse trees. Despite its difficulty, unsupervised parsing is an interesting research direction because of its capability of utilizing almost unlimited unannotated text data. It also serves as the basis for other research in low-resource parsing. In this paper, we survey existing approaches to unsupervised dependency parsing, identify two major classes of approaches, and discuss recent trends. We hope that our survey can provide insights for researchers and facilitate future research on this topic.

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Deep Inside-outside Recursive Autoencoder with All-span Objective
Ruyue Hong | Jiong Cai | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Deep inside-outside recursive autoencoder (DIORA) is a neural-based model designed for unsupervised constituency parsing. During its forward computation, it provides phrase and contextual representations for all spans in the input sentence. By utilizing the contextual representation of each leaf-level span, the span of length 1, to reconstruct the word inside the span, the model is trained without labeled data. In this work, we extend the training objective of DIORA by making use of all spans instead of only leaf-level spans. We test our new training objective on datasets of two languages: English and Japanese, and empirically show that our method achieves improvement in parsing accuracy over the original DIORA.

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Second-Order Unsupervised Neural Dependency Parsing
Songlin Yang | Yong Jiang | Wenjuan Han | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Most of the unsupervised dependency parsers are based on first-order probabilistic generative models that only consider local parent-child information. Inspired by second-order supervised dependency parsing, we proposed a second-order extension of unsupervised neural dependency models that incorporate grandparent-child or sibling information. We also propose a novel design of the neural parameterization and optimization methods of the dependency models. In second-order models, the number of grammar rules grows cubically with the increase of vocabulary size, making it difficult to train lexicalized models that may contain thousands of words. To circumvent this problem while still benefiting from both second-order parsing and lexicalization, we use the agreement-based learning framework to jointly train a second-order unlexicalized model and a first-order lexicalized model. Experiments on multiple datasets show the effectiveness of our second-order models compared with recent state-of-the-art methods. Our joint model achieves a 10% improvement over the previous state-of-the-art parser on the full WSJ test set.

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Adversarial Attack and Defense of Structured Prediction Models
Wenjuan Han | Liwen Zhang | Yong Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Building an effective adversarial attacker and elaborating on countermeasures for adversarial attacks for natural language processing (NLP) have attracted a lot of research in recent years. However, most of the existing approaches focus on classification problems. In this paper, we investigate attacks and defenses for structured prediction tasks in NLP. Besides the difficulty of perturbing discrete words and the sentence fluency problem faced by attackers in any NLP tasks, there is a specific challenge to attackers of structured prediction models: the structured output of structured prediction models is sensitive to small perturbations in the input. To address these problems, we propose a novel and unified framework that learns to attack a structured prediction model using a sequence-to-sequence model with feedbacks from multiple reference models of the same structured prediction task. Based on the proposed attack, we further reinforce the victim model with adversarial training, making its prediction more robust and accurate. We evaluate the proposed framework in dependency parsing and part-of-speech tagging. Automatic and human evaluations show that our proposed framework succeeds in both attacking state-of-the-art structured prediction models and boosting them with adversarial training.

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Cold-Start and Interpretability: Turning Regular Expressions into Trainable Recurrent Neural Networks
Chengyue Jiang | Yinggong Zhao | Shanbo Chu | Libin Shen | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Neural networks can achieve impressive performance on many natural language processing applications, but they typically need large labeled data for training and are not easily interpretable. On the other hand, symbolic rules such as regular expressions are interpretable, require no training, and often achieve decent accuracy; but rules cannot benefit from labeled data when available and hence underperform neural networks in rich-resource scenarios. In this paper, we propose a type of recurrent neural networks called FA-RNNs that combine the advantages of neural networks and regular expression rules. An FA-RNN can be converted from regular expressions and deployed in zero-shot and cold-start scenarios. It can also utilize labeled data for training to achieve improved prediction accuracy. After training, an FA-RNN often remains interpretable and can be converted back into regular expressions. We apply FA-RNNs to text classification and observe that FA-RNNs significantly outperform previous neural approaches in both zero-shot and low-resource settings and remain very competitive in rich-resource settings.

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AIN: Fast and Accurate Sequence Labeling with Approximate Inference Network
Xinyu Wang | Yong Jiang | Nguyen Bach | Tao Wang | Zhongqiang Huang | Fei Huang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The linear-chain Conditional Random Field (CRF) model is one of the most widely-used neural sequence labeling approaches. Exact probabilistic inference algorithms such as the forward-backward and Viterbi algorithms are typically applied in training and prediction stages of the CRF model. However, these algorithms require sequential computation that makes parallelization impossible. In this paper, we propose to employ a parallelizable approximate variational inference algorithm for the CRF model. Based on this algorithm, we design an approximate inference network that can be connected with the encoder of the neural CRF model to form an end-to-end network, which is amenable to parallelization for faster training and prediction. The empirical results show that our proposed approaches achieve a 12.7-fold improvement in decoding speed with long sentences and a competitive accuracy compared with the traditional CRF approach.

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Enhanced Universal Dependency Parsing with Second-Order Inference and Mixture of Training Data
Xinyu Wang | Yong Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Parsing Technologies and the IWPT 2020 Shared Task on Parsing into Enhanced Universal Dependencies

This paper presents the system used in our submission to the IWPT 2020 Shared Task. Our system is a graph-based parser with second-order inference. For the low-resource Tamil corpora, we specially mixed the training data of Tamil with other languages and significantly improved the performance of Tamil. Due to our misunderstanding of the submission requirements, we submitted graphs that are not connected, which makes our system only rank 6th over 10 teams. However, after we fixed this problem, our system is 0.6 ELAS higher than the team that ranked 1st in the official results.

2019

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A Regularization-based Framework for Bilingual Grammar Induction
Yong Jiang | Wenjuan Han | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Grammar induction aims to discover syntactic structures from unannotated sentences. In this paper, we propose a framework in which the learning process of the grammar model of one language is influenced by knowledge from the model of another language. Unlike previous work on multilingual grammar induction, our approach does not rely on any external resource, such as parallel corpora, word alignments or linguistic phylogenetic trees. We propose three regularization methods that encourage similarity between model parameters, dependency edge scores, and parse trees respectively. We deploy our methods on a state-of-the-art unsupervised discriminative parser and evaluate it on both transfer grammar induction and bilingual grammar induction. Empirical results on multiple languages show that our methods outperform strong baselines.

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Multilingual Grammar Induction with Continuous Language Identification
Wenjuan Han | Ge Wang | Yong Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The key to multilingual grammar induction is to couple grammar parameters of different languages together by exploiting the similarity between languages. Previous work relies on linguistic phylogenetic knowledge to specify similarity between languages. In this work, we propose a novel universal grammar induction approach that represents language identities with continuous vectors and employs a neural network to predict grammar parameters based on the representation. Without any prior linguistic phylogenetic knowledge, we automatically capture similarity between languages with the vector representations and softly tie the grammar parameters of different languages. In our experiments, we apply our approach to 15 languages across 8 language families and subfamilies in the Universal Dependency Treebank dataset, and we observe substantial performance gain on average over monolingual and multilingual baselines.

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ShanghaiTech at MRP 2019: Sequence-to-Graph Transduction with Second-Order Edge Inference for Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing
Xinyu Wang | Yixian Liu | Zixia Jia | Chengyue Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the Shared Task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing at the 2019 Conference on Natural Language Learning

This paper presents the system used in our submission to the CoNLL 2019 shared task: Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing. Our system is a graph-based parser which combines an extended pointer-generator network that generates nodes and a second-order mean field variational inference module that predicts edges. Our system achieved 1st and 2nd place for the DM and PSD frameworks respectively on the in-framework ranks and achieved 3rd place for the DM framework on the cross-framework ranks.

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Second-Order Semantic Dependency Parsing with End-to-End Neural Networks
Xinyu Wang | Jingxian Huang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Semantic dependency parsing aims to identify semantic relationships between words in a sentence that form a graph. In this paper, we propose a second-order semantic dependency parser, which takes into consideration not only individual dependency edges but also interactions between pairs of edges. We show that second-order parsing can be approximated using mean field (MF) variational inference or loopy belief propagation (LBP). We can unfold both algorithms as recurrent layers of a neural network and therefore can train the parser in an end-to-end manner. Our experiments show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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Latent Variable Sentiment Grammar
Liwen Zhang | Kewei Tu | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Neural models have been investigated for sentiment classification over constituent trees. They learn phrase composition automatically by encoding tree structures but do not explicitly model sentiment composition, which requires to encode sentiment class labels. To this end, we investigate two formalisms with deep sentiment representations that capture sentiment subtype expressions by latent variables and Gaussian mixture vectors, respectively. Experiments on Stanford Sentiment Treebank (SST) show the effectiveness of sentiment grammar over vanilla neural encoders. Using ELMo embeddings, our method gives the best results on this benchmark.

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Enhancing Unsupervised Generative Dependency Parser with Contextual Information
Wenjuan Han | Yong Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Most of the unsupervised dependency parsers are based on probabilistic generative models that learn the joint distribution of the given sentence and its parse. Probabilistic generative models usually explicit decompose the desired dependency tree into factorized grammar rules, which lack the global features of the entire sentence. In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic model called discriminative neural dependency model with valence (D-NDMV) that generates a sentence and its parse from a continuous latent representation, which encodes global contextual information of the generated sentence. We propose two approaches to model the latent representation: the first deterministically summarizes the representation from the sentence and the second probabilistically models the representation conditioned on the sentence. Our approach can be regarded as a new type of autoencoder model to unsupervised dependency parsing that combines the benefits of both generative and discriminative techniques. In particular, our approach breaks the context-free independence assumption in previous generative approaches and therefore becomes more expressive. Our extensive experimental results on seventeen datasets from various sources show that our approach achieves competitive accuracy compared with both generative and discriminative state-of-the-art unsupervised dependency parsers.

2018

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Gaussian Mixture Latent Vector Grammars
Yanpeng Zhao | Liwen Zhang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We introduce Latent Vector Grammars (LVeGs), a new framework that extends latent variable grammars such that each nonterminal symbol is associated with a continuous vector space representing the set of (infinitely many) subtypes of the nonterminal. We show that previous models such as latent variable grammars and compositional vector grammars can be interpreted as special cases of LVeGs. We then present Gaussian Mixture LVeGs (GM-LVeGs), a new special case of LVeGs that uses Gaussian mixtures to formulate the weights of production rules over subtypes of nonterminals. A major advantage of using Gaussian mixtures is that the partition function and the expectations of subtype rules can be computed using an extension of the inside-outside algorithm, which enables efficient inference and learning. We apply GM-LVeGs to part-of-speech tagging and constituency parsing and show that GM-LVeGs can achieve competitive accuracies.

2017

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CRF Autoencoder for Unsupervised Dependency Parsing
Jiong Cai | Yong Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Unsupervised dependency parsing, which tries to discover linguistic dependency structures from unannotated data, is a very challenging task. Almost all previous work on this task focuses on learning generative models. In this paper, we develop an unsupervised dependency parsing model based on the CRF autoencoder. The encoder part of our model is discriminative and globally normalized which allows us to use rich features as well as universal linguistic priors. We propose an exact algorithm for parsing as well as a tractable learning algorithm. We evaluated the performance of our model on eight multilingual treebanks and found that our model achieved comparable performance with state-of-the-art approaches.

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Dependency Grammar Induction with Neural Lexicalization and Big Training Data
Wenjuan Han | Yong Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We study the impact of big models (in terms of the degree of lexicalization) and big data (in terms of the training corpus size) on dependency grammar induction. We experimented with L-DMV, a lexicalized version of Dependency Model with Valence (Klein and Manning, 2004) and L-NDMV, our lexicalized extension of the Neural Dependency Model with Valence (Jiang et al., 2016). We find that L-DMV only benefits from very small degrees of lexicalization and moderate sizes of training corpora. L-NDMV can benefit from big training data and lexicalization of greater degrees, especially when enhanced with good model initialization, and it achieves a result that is competitive with the current state-of-the-art.

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Combining Generative and Discriminative Approaches to Unsupervised Dependency Parsing via Dual Decomposition
Yong Jiang | Wenjuan Han | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Unsupervised dependency parsing aims to learn a dependency parser from unannotated sentences. Existing work focuses on either learning generative models using the expectation-maximization algorithm and its variants, or learning discriminative models using the discriminative clustering algorithm. In this paper, we propose a new learning strategy that learns a generative model and a discriminative model jointly based on the dual decomposition method. Our method is simple and general, yet effective to capture the advantages of both models and improve their learning results. We tested our method on the UD treebank and achieved a state-of-the-art performance on thirty languages.

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Semi-supervised Structured Prediction with Neural CRF Autoencoder
Xiao Zhang | Yong Jiang | Hao Peng | Kewei Tu | Dan Goldwasser
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper we propose an end-to-end neural CRF autoencoder (NCRF-AE) model for semi-supervised learning of sequential structured prediction problems. Our NCRF-AE consists of two parts: an encoder which is a CRF model enhanced by deep neural networks, and a decoder which is a generative model trying to reconstruct the input. Our model has a unified structure with different loss functions for labeled and unlabeled data with shared parameters. We developed a variation of the EM algorithm for optimizing both the encoder and the decoder simultaneously by decoupling their parameters. Our Experimental results over the Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging task on eight different languages, show that our model can outperform competitive systems in both supervised and semi-supervised scenarios.

2016

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Context-Dependent Sense Embedding
Lin Qiu | Kewei Tu | Yong Yu
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Unsupervised Neural Dependency Parsing
Yong Jiang | Wenjuan Han | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Modified Dirichlet Distribution: Allowing Negative Parameters to Induce Stronger Sparsity
Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2012

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Combining the Sparsity and Unambiguity Biases for Grammar Induction
Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the NAACL-HLT Workshop on the Induction of Linguistic Structure

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Unambiguity Regularization for Unsupervised Learning of Probabilistic Grammars
Kewei Tu | Vasant Honavar
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning