Kalpesh Krishna


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Reformulating Unsupervised Style Transfer as Paraphrase Generation
Kalpesh Krishna | John Wieting | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Modern NLP defines the task of style transfer as modifying the style of a given sentence without appreciably changing its semantics, which implies that the outputs of style transfer systems should be paraphrases of their inputs. However, many existing systems purportedly designed for style transfer inherently warp the input’s meaning through attribute transfer, which changes semantic properties such as sentiment. In this paper, we reformulate unsupervised style transfer as a paraphrase generation problem, and present a simple methodology based on fine-tuning pretrained language models on automatically generated paraphrase data. Despite its simplicity, our method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art style transfer systems on both human and automatic evaluations. We also survey 23 style transfer papers and discover that existing automatic metrics can be easily gamed and propose fixed variants. Finally, we pivot to a more real-world style transfer setting by collecting a large dataset of 15M sentences in 11 diverse styles, which we use for an in-depth analysis of our system.


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Syntactically Supervised Transformers for Faster Neural Machine Translation
Nader Akoury | Kalpesh Krishna | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Standard decoders for neural machine translation autoregressively generate a single target token per timestep, which slows inference especially for long outputs. While architectural advances such as the Transformer fully parallelize the decoder computations at training time, inference still proceeds sequentially. Recent developments in non- and semi-autoregressive decoding produce multiple tokens per timestep independently of the others, which improves inference speed but deteriorates translation quality. In this work, we propose the syntactically supervised Transformer (SynST), which first autoregressively predicts a chunked parse tree before generating all of the target tokens in one shot conditioned on the predicted parse. A series of controlled experiments demonstrates that SynST decodes sentences ~5x faster than the baseline autoregressive Transformer while achieving higher BLEU scores than most competing methods on En-De and En-Fr datasets.

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Generating Question-Answer Hierarchies
Kalpesh Krishna | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The process of knowledge acquisition can be viewed as a question-answer game between a student and a teacher in which the student typically starts by asking broad, open-ended questions before drilling down into specifics (Hintikka, 1981; Hakkarainen and Sintonen, 2002). This pedagogical perspective motivates a new way of representing documents. In this paper, we present SQUASH (Specificity-controlled Question-Answer Hierarchies), a novel and challenging text generation task that converts an input document into a hierarchy of question-answer pairs. Users can click on high-level questions (e.g., “Why did Frodo leave the Fellowship?”) to reveal related but more specific questions (e.g., “Who did Frodo leave with?”). Using a question taxonomy loosely based on Lehnert (1978), we classify questions in existing reading comprehension datasets as either GENERAL or SPECIFIC . We then use these labels as input to a pipelined system centered around a conditional neural language model. We extensively evaluate the quality of the generated QA hierarchies through crowdsourced experiments and report strong empirical results.


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Revisiting the Importance of Encoding Logic Rules in Sentiment Classification
Kalpesh Krishna | Preethi Jyothi | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We analyze the performance of different sentiment classification models on syntactically complex inputs like A-but-B sentences. The first contribution of this analysis addresses reproducible research: to meaningfully compare different models, their accuracies must be averaged over far more random seeds than what has traditionally been reported. With proper averaging in place, we notice that the distillation model described in Hu et al. (2016), which incorporates explicit logic rules for sentiment classification, is ineffective. In contrast, using contextualized ELMo embeddings (Peters et al., 2018a) instead of logic rules yields significantly better performance. Additionally, we provide analysis and visualizations that demonstrate ELMo’s ability to implicitly learn logic rules. Finally, a crowdsourced analysis reveals how ELMo outperforms baseline models even on sentences with ambiguous sentiment labels.