Kai Lei


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Relabel the Noise: Joint Extraction of Entities and Relations via Cooperative Multiagents
Daoyuan Chen | Yaliang Li | Kai Lei | Ying Shen
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Distant supervision based methods for entity and relation extraction have received increasing popularity due to the fact that these methods require light human annotation efforts. In this paper, we consider the problem of shifted label distribution, which is caused by the inconsistency between the noisy-labeled training set subject to external knowledge graph and the human-annotated test set, and exacerbated by the pipelined entity-then-relation extraction manner with noise propagation. We propose a joint extraction approach to address this problem by re-labeling noisy instances with a group of cooperative multiagents. To handle noisy instances in a fine-grained manner, each agent in the cooperative group evaluates the instance by calculating a continuous confidence score from its own perspective; To leverage the correlations between these two extraction tasks, a confidence consensus module is designed to gather the wisdom of all agents and re-distribute the noisy training set with confidence-scored labels. Further, the confidences are used to adjust the training losses of extractors. Experimental results on two real-world datasets verify the benefits of re-labeling noisy instance, and show that the proposed model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art entity and relation extraction methods.


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Self-Adaptive Scaling for Learnable Residual Structure
Fenglin Liu | Meng Gao | Yuanxin Liu | Kai Lei
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Residual has been widely applied to build deep neural networks with enhanced feature propagation and improved accuracy. In the literature, multiple variants of residual structure are proposed. However, most of them are manually designed for particular tasks and datasets and the combination of existing residual structures has not been well studied. In this work, we propose the Self-Adaptive Scaling (SAS) approach that automatically learns the design of residual structure from data. The proposed approach makes the best of various residual structures, resulting in a general architecture covering several existing ones. In this manner, we construct a learnable residual structure which can be easily integrated into a wide range of residual-based models. We evaluate our approach on various tasks concerning different modalities, including machine translation (IWSLT-2015 EN-VI and WMT-2014 EN-DE, EN-FR), image classification (CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100), and image captioning (MSCOCO). Empirical results show that the proposed approach consistently improves the residual-based models and exhibits desirable generalization ability. In particular, by incorporating the proposed approach to the Transformer model, we establish new state-of-the-arts on the IWSLT-2015 EN-VI low-resource machine translation dataset.


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Cooperative Denoising for Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Kai Lei | Daoyuan Chen | Yaliang Li | Nan Du | Min Yang | Wei Fan | Ying Shen
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Distantly supervised relation extraction greatly reduces human efforts in extracting relational facts from unstructured texts. However, it suffers from noisy labeling problem, which can degrade its performance. Meanwhile, the useful information expressed in knowledge graph is still underutilized in the state-of-the-art methods for distantly supervised relation extraction. In the light of these challenges, we propose CORD, a novelCOopeRativeDenoising framework, which consists two base networks leveraging text corpus and knowledge graph respectively, and a cooperative module involving their mutual learning by the adaptive bi-directional knowledge distillation and dynamic ensemble with noisy-varying instances. Experimental results on a real-world dataset demonstrate that the proposed method reduces the noisy labels and achieves substantial improvement over the state-of-the-art methods.

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Knowledge as A Bridge: Improving Cross-domain Answer Selection with External Knowledge
Yang Deng | Ying Shen | Min Yang | Yaliang Li | Nan Du | Wei Fan | Kai Lei
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Answer selection is an important but challenging task. Significant progresses have been made in domains where a large amount of labeled training data is available. However, obtaining rich annotated data is a time-consuming and expensive process, creating a substantial barrier for applying answer selection models to a new domain which has limited labeled data. In this paper, we propose Knowledge-aware Attentive Network (KAN), a transfer learning framework for cross-domain answer selection, which uses the knowledge base as a bridge to enable knowledge transfer from the source domain to the target domains. Specifically, we design a knowledge module to integrate the knowledge-based representational learning into answer selection models. The learned knowledge-based representations are shared by source and target domains, which not only leverages large amounts of cross-domain data, but also benefits from a regularization effect that leads to more general representations to help tasks in new domains. To verify the effectiveness of our model, we use SQuAD-T dataset as the source domain and three other datasets (i.e., Yahoo QA, TREC QA and InsuranceQA) as the target domains. The experimental results demonstrate that KAN has remarkable applicability and generality, and consistently outperforms the strong competitors by a noticeable margin for cross-domain answer selection.