Jing Liu


2019

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D-NET: A Pre-Training and Fine-Tuning Framework for Improving the Generalization of Machine Reading Comprehension
Hongyu Li | Xiyuan Zhang | Yibing Liu | Yiming Zhang | Quan Wang | Xiangyang Zhou | Jing Liu | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

In this paper, we introduce a simple system Baidu submitted for MRQA (Machine Reading for Question Answering) 2019 Shared Task that focused on generalization of machine reading comprehension (MRC) models. Our system is built on a framework of pretraining and fine-tuning, namely D-NET. The techniques of pre-trained language models and multi-task learning are explored to improve the generalization of MRC models and we conduct experiments to examine the effectiveness of these strategies. Our system is ranked at top 1 of all the participants in terms of averaged F1 score. Our codes and models will be released at PaddleNLP.

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Enhancing Pre-Trained Language Representations with Rich Knowledge for Machine Reading Comprehension
An Yang | Quan Wang | Jing Liu | Kai Liu | Yajuan Lyu | Hua Wu | Qiaoqiao She | Sujian Li
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Machine reading comprehension (MRC) is a crucial and challenging task in NLP. Recently, pre-trained language models (LMs), especially BERT, have achieved remarkable success, presenting new state-of-the-art results in MRC. In this work, we investigate the potential of leveraging external knowledge bases (KBs) to further improve BERT for MRC. We introduce KT-NET, which employs an attention mechanism to adaptively select desired knowledge from KBs, and then fuses selected knowledge with BERT to enable context- and knowledge-aware predictions. We believe this would combine the merits of both deep LMs and curated KBs towards better MRC. Experimental results indicate that KT-NET offers significant and consistent improvements over BERT, outperforming competitive baselines on ReCoRD and SQuAD1.1 benchmarks. Notably, it ranks the 1st place on the ReCoRD leaderboard, and is also the best single model on the SQuAD1.1 leaderboard at the time of submission (March 4th, 2019).

2018

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Revisiting Distant Supervision for Relation Extraction
Tingsong Jiang | Jing Liu | Chin-Yew Lin | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Aggregated Semantic Matching for Short Text Entity Linking
Feng Nie | Shuyan Zhou | Jing Liu | Jinpeng Wang | Chin-Yew Lin | Rong Pan
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

The task of entity linking aims to identify concepts mentioned in a text fragments and link them to a reference knowledge base. Entity linking in long text has been well studied in previous work. However, short text entity linking is more challenging since the text are noisy and less coherent. To better utilize the local information provided in short texts, we propose a novel neural network framework, Aggregated Semantic Matching (ASM), in which two different aspects of semantic information between the local context and the candidate entity are captured via representation-based and interaction-based neural semantic matching models, and then two matching signals work jointly for disambiguation with a rank aggregation mechanism. Our evaluation shows that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-arts on public tweet datasets.

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Answer-focused and Position-aware Neural Question Generation
Xingwu Sun | Jing Liu | Yajuan Lyu | Wei He | Yanjun Ma | Shi Wang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we focus on the problem of question generation (QG). Recent neural network-based approaches employ the sequence-to-sequence model which takes an answer and its context as input and generates a relevant question as output. However, we observe two major issues with these approaches: (1) The generated interrogative words (or question words) do not match the answer type. (2) The model copies the context words that are far from and irrelevant to the answer, instead of the words that are close and relevant to the answer. To address these two issues, we propose an answer-focused and position-aware neural question generation model. (1) By answer-focused, we mean that we explicitly model question word generation by incorporating the answer embedding, which can help generate an interrogative word matching the answer type. (2) By position-aware, we mean that we model the relative distance between the context words and the answer. Hence the model can be aware of the position of the context words when copying them to generate a question. We conduct extensive experiments to examine the effectiveness of our model. The experimental results show that our model significantly improves the baseline and outperforms the state-of-the-art system.

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Neural Math Word Problem Solver with Reinforcement Learning
Danqing Huang | Jing Liu | Chin-Yew Lin | Jian Yin
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Sequence-to-sequence model has been applied to solve math word problems. The model takes math problem descriptions as input and generates equations as output. The advantage of sequence-to-sequence model requires no feature engineering and can generate equations that do not exist in training data. However, our experimental analysis reveals that this model suffers from two shortcomings: (1) generate spurious numbers; (2) generate numbers at wrong positions. In this paper, we propose incorporating copy and alignment mechanism to the sequence-to-sequence model (namely CASS) to address these shortcomings. To train our model, we apply reinforcement learning to directly optimize the solution accuracy. It overcomes the “train-test discrepancy” issue of maximum likelihood estimation, which uses the surrogate objective of maximizing equation likelihood during training while the evaluation metric is solution accuracy (non-differentiable) at test time. Furthermore, to explore the effectiveness of our neural model, we use our model output as a feature and incorporate it into the feature-based model. Experimental results show that (1) The copy and alignment mechanism is effective to address the two issues; (2) Reinforcement learning leads to better performance than maximum likelihood on this task; (3) Our neural model is complementary to the feature-based model and their combination significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art results.

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Multi-Passage Machine Reading Comprehension with Cross-Passage Answer Verification
Yizhong Wang | Kai Liu | Jing Liu | Wei He | Yajuan Lyu | Hua Wu | Sujian Li | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Machine reading comprehension (MRC) on real web data usually requires the machine to answer a question by analyzing multiple passages retrieved by search engine. Compared with MRC on a single passage, multi-passage MRC is more challenging, since we are likely to get multiple confusing answer candidates from different passages. To address this problem, we propose an end-to-end neural model that enables those answer candidates from different passages to verify each other based on their content representations. Specifically, we jointly train three modules that can predict the final answer based on three factors: the answer boundary, the answer content and the cross-passage answer verification. The experimental results show that our method outperforms the baseline by a large margin and achieves the state-of-the-art performance on the English MS-MARCO dataset and the Chinese DuReader dataset, both of which are designed for MRC in real-world settings.

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DuReader: a Chinese Machine Reading Comprehension Dataset from Real-world Applications
Wei He | Kai Liu | Jing Liu | Yajuan Lyu | Shiqi Zhao | Xinyan Xiao | Yuan Liu | Yizhong Wang | Hua Wu | Qiaoqiao She | Xuan Liu | Tian Wu | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

This paper introduces DuReader, a new large-scale, open-domain Chinese machine reading comprehension (MRC) dataset, designed to address real-world MRC. DuReader has three advantages over previous MRC datasets: (1) data sources: questions and documents are based on Baidu Search and Baidu Zhidao; answers are manually generated. (2) question types: it provides rich annotations for more question types, especially yes-no and opinion questions, that leaves more opportunity for the research community. (3) scale: it contains 200K questions, 420K answers and 1M documents; it is the largest Chinese MRC dataset so far. Experiments show that human performance is well above current state-of-the-art baseline systems, leaving plenty of room for the community to make improvements. To help the community make these improvements, both DuReader and baseline systems have been posted online. We also organize a shared competition to encourage the exploration of more models. Since the release of the task, there are significant improvements over the baselines.

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Adaptations of ROUGE and BLEU to Better Evaluate Machine Reading Comprehension Task
An Yang | Kai Liu | Jing Liu | Yajuan Lyu | Sujian Li
Proceedings of the Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

Current evaluation metrics to question answering based machine reading comprehension (MRC) systems generally focus on the lexical overlap between candidate and reference answers, such as ROUGE and BLEU. However, bias may appear when these metrics are used for specific question types, especially questions inquiring yes-no opinions and entity lists. In this paper, we make adaptations on the metrics to better correlate n-gram overlap with the human judgment for answers to these two question types. Statistical analysis proves the effectiveness of our approach. Our adaptations may provide positive guidance for the development of real-scene MRC systems.

2017

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A Statistical Framework for Product Description Generation
Jinpeng Wang | Yutai Hou | Jing Liu | Yunbo Cao | Chin-Yew Lin
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

We present in this paper a statistical framework that generates accurate and fluent product description from product attributes. Specifically, after extracting templates and learning writing knowledge from attribute-description parallel data, we use the learned knowledge to decide what to say and how to say for product description generation. To evaluate accuracy and fluency for the generated descriptions, in addition to BLEU and Recall, we propose to measure what to say (in terms of attribute coverage) and to measure how to say (by attribute-specified generation) separately. Experimental results show that our framework is effective.

2016

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News Citation Recommendation with Implicit and Explicit Semantics
Hao Peng | Jing Liu | Chin-Yew Lin
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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RBPB: Regularization-Based Pattern Balancing Method for Event Extraction
Lei Sha | Jing Liu | Chin-Yew Lin | Sujian Li | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Knowledge Base Completion via Coupled Path Ranking
Quan Wang | Jing Liu | Yuanfei Luo | Bin Wang | Chin-Yew Lin
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2014

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A Regularized Competition Model for Question Difficulty Estimation in Community Question Answering Services
Quan Wang | Jing Liu | Bin Wang | Li Guo
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

2013

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Question Difficulty Estimation in Community Question Answering Services
Jing Liu | Quan Wang | Chin-Yew Lin | Hsiao-Wuen Hon
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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A Hierarchical Entity-Based Approach to Structuralize User Generated Content in Social Media: A Case of Yahoo! Answers
Baichuan Li | Jing Liu | Chin-Yew Lin | Irwin King | Michael R. Lyu
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2011

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Nonlinear Evidence Fusion and Propagation for Hyponymy Relation Mining
Fan Zhang | Shuming Shi | Jing Liu | Shuqi Sun | Chin-Yew Lin
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies