Machine reading comprehension (MRC) is the task that asks a machine to answer questions based on a given context. For Chinese MRC, due to the non-literal and non-compositional semantic characteristics, Chinese idioms pose unique challenges for machines to understand. Previous studies tend to treat idioms separately without fully exploiting the relationship among them. In this paper, we first define the concept of literal meaning coverage to measure the consistency between semantics and literal meanings for Chinese idioms. With the definition, we prove that the literal meanings of many idioms are far from their semantics, and we also verify that the synonymic relationship can mitigate this inconsistency, which would be beneficial for idiom comprehension. Furthermore, to fully utilize the synonymic relationship, we propose the synonym knowledge enhanced reader. Specifically, for each idiom, we first construct a synonym graph according to the annotations from the high-quality synonym dictionary or the cosine similarity between the pre-trained idiom embeddings and then incorporate the graph attention network and gate mechanism to encode the graph. Experimental results on ChID, a large-scale Chinese idiom reading comprehension dataset, show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance.
Previous studies on the domain adaptation for neural machine translation (NMT) mainly focus on the one-pass transferring out-of-domain translation knowledge to in-domain NMT model. In this paper, we argue that such a strategy fails to fully extract the domain-shared translation knowledge, and repeatedly utilizing corpora of different domains can lead to better distillation of domain-shared translation knowledge. To this end, we propose an iterative dual domain adaptation framework for NMT. Specifically, we first pretrain in-domain and out-of-domain NMT models using their own training corpora respectively, and then iteratively perform bidirectional translation knowledge transfer (from in-domain to out-of-domain and then vice versa) based on knowledge distillation until the in-domain NMT model convergences. Furthermore, we extend the proposed framework to the scenario of multiple out-of-domain training corpora, where the above-mentioned transfer is performed sequentially between the in-domain and each out-of-domain NMT models in the ascending order of their domain similarities. Empirical results on Chinese-English and English-German translation tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework.
With great practical value, the study of Multi-domain Neural Machine Translation (NMT) mainly focuses on using mixed-domain parallel sentences to construct a unified model that allows translation to switch between different domains. Intuitively, words in a sentence are related to its domain to varying degrees, so that they will exert disparate impacts on the multi-domain NMT modeling. Based on this intuition, in this paper, we devote to distinguishing and exploiting word-level domain contexts for multi-domain NMT. To this end, we jointly model NMT with monolingual attention-based domain classification tasks and improve NMT as follows: 1) Based on the sentence representations produced by a domain classifier and an adversarial domain classifier, we generate two gating vectors and use them to construct domain-specific and domain-shared annotations, for later translation predictions via different attention models; 2) We utilize the attention weights derived from target-side domain classifier to adjust the weights of target words in the training objective, enabling domain-related words to have greater impacts during model training. Experimental results on Chinese-English and English-French multi-domain translation tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Source codes of this paper are available on Github https://github.com/DeepLearnXMU/WDCNMT