James Route


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Bend but Don’t Break? Multi-Challenge Stress Test for QA Models
Hemant Pugaliya | James Route | Kaixin Ma | Yixuan Geng | Eric Nyberg
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

The field of question answering (QA) has seen rapid growth in new tasks and modeling approaches in recent years. Large scale datasets and focus on challenging linguistic phenomena have driven development in neural models, some of which have achieved parity with human performance in limited cases. However, an examination of state-of-the-art model output reveals that a gap remains in reasoning ability compared to a human, and performance tends to degrade when models are exposed to less-constrained tasks. We are interested in more clearly defining the strengths and limitations of leading models across diverse QA challenges, intending to help future researchers with identifying pathways to generalizable performance. We conduct extensive qualitative and quantitative analyses on the results of four models across four datasets and relate common errors to model capabilities. We also illustrate limitations in the datasets we examine and discuss a way forward for achieving generalizable models and datasets that broadly test QA capabilities.

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Multimodal, Multilingual Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion for Low-Resource Languages
James Route | Steven Hillis | Isak Czeresnia Etinger | Han Zhang | Alan W Black
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

Grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (g2p) is the task of predicting the pronunciation of words from their orthographic representation. His- torically, g2p systems were transition- or rule- based, making generalization beyond a mono- lingual (high resource) domain impractical. Recently, neural architectures have enabled multilingual systems to generalize widely; however, all systems to date have been trained only on spelling-pronunciation pairs. We hy- pothesize that the sequences of IPA characters used to represent pronunciation do not capture its full nuance, especially when cleaned to fa- cilitate machine learning. We leverage audio data as an auxiliary modality in a multi-task training process to learn a more optimal inter- mediate representation of source graphemes; this is the first multimodal model proposed for multilingual g2p. Our approach is highly ef- fective: on our in-domain test set, our mul- timodal model reduces phoneme error rate to 2.46%, a more than 65% decrease compared to our implementation of a unimodal spelling- pronunciation model—which itself achieves state-of-the-art results on the Wiktionary test set. The advantages of the multimodal model generalize to wholly unseen languages, reduc- ing phoneme error rate on our out-of-domain test set to 6.39% from the unimodal 8.21%, a more than 20% relative decrease. Further- more, our training and test sets are composed primarily of low-resource languages, demon- strating that our multimodal approach remains useful when training data are constrained.

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Dr.Quad at MEDIQA 2019: Towards Textual Inference and Question Entailment using contextualized representations
Vinayshekhar Bannihatti Kumar | Ashwin Srinivasan | Aditi Chaudhary | James Route | Teruko Mitamura | Eric Nyberg
Proceedings of the 18th BioNLP Workshop and Shared Task

This paper presents the submissions by TeamDr.Quad to the ACL-BioNLP 2019 shared task on Textual Inference and Question Entailment in the Medical Domain. Our system is based on the prior work Liu et al. (2019) which uses a multi-task objective function for textual entailment. In this work, we explore different strategies for generalizing state-of-the-art language understanding models to the specialized medical domain. Our results on the shared task demonstrate that incorporating domain knowledge through data augmentation is a powerful strategy for addressing challenges posed specialized domains such as medicine.

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Sieg at MEDIQA 2019: Multi-task Neural Ensemble for Biomedical Inference and Entailment
Sai Abishek Bhaskar | Rashi Rungta | James Route | Eric Nyberg | Teruko Mitamura
Proceedings of the 18th BioNLP Workshop and Shared Task

This paper presents a multi-task learning approach to natural language inference (NLI) and question entailment (RQE) in the biomedical domain. Recognizing textual inference relations and question similarity can address the issue of answering new consumer health questions by mapping them to Frequently Asked Questions on reputed websites like the NIH. We show that leveraging information from parallel tasks across domains along with medical knowledge integration allows our model to learn better biomedical feature representations. Our final models for the NLI and RQE tasks achieve the 4th and 2nd rank on the shared-task leaderboard respectively.