Ilia Markov


pdf bib
A Deep Generative Approach to Native Language Identification
Ehsan Lotfi | Ilia Markov | Walter Daelemans
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Native language identification (NLI) – identifying the native language (L1) of a person based on his/her writing in the second language (L2) – is useful for a variety of purposes, including marketing, security, and educational applications. From a traditional machine learning perspective,NLI is usually framed as a multi-class classification task, where numerous designed features are combined in order to achieve the state-of-the-art results. We introduce a deep generative language modelling (LM) approach to NLI, which consists in fine-tuning a GPT-2 model separately on texts written by the authors with the same L1, and assigning a label to an unseen text based on the minimum LM loss with respect to one of these fine-tuned GPT-2 models. Our method outperforms traditional machine learning approaches and currently achieves the best results on the benchmark NLI datasets.

pdf bib
The LiLaH Emotion Lexicon of Croatian, Dutch and Slovene
Nikola Ljubešić | Ilia Markov | Darja Fišer | Walter Daelemans
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Modeling of People's Opinions, Personality, and Emotion's in Social Media

In this paper, we present emotion lexicons of Croatian, Dutch and Slovene, based on manually corrected automatic translations of the English NRC Emotion lexicon. We evaluate the impact of the translation changes by measuring the change in supervised classification results of socially unacceptable utterances when lexicon information is used for feature construction. We further showcase the usage of the lexicons by calculating the difference in emotion distributions in texts containing and not containing socially unacceptable discourse, comparing them across four languages (English, Croatian, Dutch, Slovene) and two topics (migrants and LGBT). We show significant and consistent improvements in automatic classification across all languages and topics, as well as consistent (and expected) emotion distributions across all languages and topics, proving for the manually corrected lexicons to be a useful addition to the severely lacking area of emotion lexicons, the crucial resource for emotive analysis of text.

pdf bib
Sarcasm Detection Using an Ensemble Approach
Jens Lemmens | Ben Burtenshaw | Ehsan Lotfi | Ilia Markov | Walter Daelemans
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing

We present an ensemble approach for the detection of sarcasm in Reddit and Twitter responses in the context of The Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing held in conjunction with ACL 2020. The ensemble is trained on the predicted sarcasm probabilities of four component models and on additional features, such as the sentiment of the comment, its length, and source (Reddit or Twitter) in order to learn which of the component models is the most reliable for which input. The component models consist of an LSTM with hashtag and emoji representations; a CNN-LSTM with casing, stop word, punctuation, and sentiment representations; an MLP based on Infersent embeddings; and an SVM trained on stylometric and emotion-based features. All component models use the two conversational turns preceding the response as context, except for the SVM, which only uses features extracted from the response. The ensemble itself consists of an adaboost classifier with the decision tree algorithm as base estimator and yields F1-scores of 67% and 74% on the Reddit and Twitter test data, respectively.


pdf bib
Anglicized Words and Misspelled Cognates in Native Language Identification
Ilia Markov | Vivi Nastase | Carlo Strapparava
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

In this paper, we present experiments that estimate the impact of specific lexical choices of people writing in a second language (L2). In particular, we look at misspelled words that indicate lexical uncertainty on the part of the author, and separate them into three categories: misspelled cognates, “L2-ed” (in our case, anglicized) words, and all other spelling errors. We test the assumption that such errors contain clues about the native language of an essay’s author through the task of native language identification. The results of the experiments show that the information brought by each of these categories is complementary. We also note that while the distribution of such features changes with the proficiency level of the writer, their contribution towards native language identification remains significant at all levels.

pdf bib
INRIA at SemEval-2019 Task 9: Suggestion Mining Using SVM with Handcrafted Features
Ilia Markov | Eric Villemonte de la Clergerie
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

We present the INRIA approach to the suggestion mining task at SemEval 2019. The task consists of two subtasks: suggestion mining under single-domain (Subtask A) and cross-domain (Subtask B) settings. We used the Support Vector Machines algorithm trained on handcrafted features, function words, sentiment features, digits, and verbs for Subtask A, and handcrafted features for Subtask B. Our best run archived a F1-score of 51.18% on Subtask A, and ranked in the top ten of the submissions for Subtask B with 73.30% F1-score.


pdf bib
Punctuation as Native Language Interference
Ilia Markov | Vivi Nastase | Carlo Strapparava
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we describe experiments designed to explore and evaluate the impact of punctuation marks on the task of native language identification. Punctuation is specific to each language, and is part of the indicators that overtly represent the manner in which each language organizes and conveys information. Our experiments are organized in various set-ups: the usual multi-class classification for individual languages, also considering classification by language groups, across different proficiency levels, topics and even cross-corpus. The results support our hypothesis that punctuation marks are persistent and robust indicators of the native language of the author, which do not diminish in influence even when a high proficiency level in a non-native language is achieved.

pdf bib
The Role of Emotions in Native Language Identification
Ilia Markov | Vivi Nastase | Carlo Strapparava | Grigori Sidorov
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis

We explore the hypothesis that emotion is one of the dimensions of language that surfaces from the native language into a second language. To check the role of emotions in native language identification (NLI), we model emotion information through polarity and emotion load features, and use document representations using these features to classify the native language of the author. The results indicate that emotion is relevant for NLI, even for high proficiency levels and across topics.


pdf bib
Discriminating between Similar Languages Using a Combination of Typed and Untyped Character N-grams and Words
Helena Gomez | Ilia Markov | Jorge Baptista | Grigori Sidorov | David Pinto
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on NLP for Similar Languages, Varieties and Dialects (VarDial)

This paper presents the cic_ualg’s system that took part in the Discriminating between Similar Languages (DSL) shared task, held at the VarDial 2017 Workshop. This year’s task aims at identifying 14 languages across 6 language groups using a corpus of excerpts of journalistic texts. Two classification approaches were compared: a single-step (all languages) approach and a two-step (language group and then languages within the group) approach. Features exploited include lexical features (unigrams of words) and character n-grams. Besides traditional (untyped) character n-grams, we introduce typed character n-grams in the DSL task. Experiments were carried out with different feature representation methods (binary and raw term frequency), frequency threshold values, and machine-learning algorithms – Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Multinomial Naive Bayes (MNB). Our best run in the DSL task achieved 91.46% accuracy.

pdf bib
CIC-FBK Approach to Native Language Identification
Ilia Markov | Lingzhen Chen | Carlo Strapparava | Grigori Sidorov
Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

We present the CIC-FBK system, which took part in the Native Language Identification (NLI) Shared Task 2017. Our approach combines features commonly used in previous NLI research, i.e., word n-grams, lemma n-grams, part-of-speech n-grams, and function words, with recently introduced character n-grams from misspelled words, and features that are novel in this task, such as typed character n-grams, and syntactic n-grams of words and of syntactic relation tags. We use log-entropy weighting scheme and perform classification using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm. Our system achieved 0.8808 macro-averaged F1-score and shared the 1st rank in the NLI Shared Task 2017 scoring.