Hung-Yi Lee


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Tree Transformer: Integrating Tree Structures into Self-Attention
Yaushian Wang | Hung-Yi Lee | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Pre-training Transformer from large-scale raw texts and fine-tuning on the desired task have achieved state-of-the-art results on diverse NLP tasks. However, it is unclear what the learned attention captures. The attention computed by attention heads seems not to match human intuitions about hierarchical structures. This paper proposes Tree Transformer, which adds an extra constraint to attention heads of the bidirectional Transformer encoder in order to encourage the attention heads to follow tree structures. The tree structures can be automatically induced from raw texts by our proposed “Constituent Attention” module, which is simply implemented by self-attention between two adjacent words. With the same training procedure identical to BERT, the experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Tree Transformer in terms of inducing tree structures, better language modeling, and further learning more explainable attention scores.

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Polly Want a Cracker: Analyzing Performance of Parroting on Paraphrase Generation Datasets
Hong-Ren Mao | Hung-Yi Lee
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Paraphrase generation is an interesting and challenging NLP task which has numerous practical applications. In this paper, we analyze datasets commonly used for paraphrase generation research, and show that simply parroting input sentences surpasses state-of-the-art models in the literature when evaluated on standard metrics. Our findings illustrate that a model could be seemingly adept at generating paraphrases, despite only making trivial changes to the input sentence or even none at all.


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Supervised and Unsupervised Transfer Learning for Question Answering
Yu-An Chung | Hung-Yi Lee | James Glass
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Although transfer learning has been shown to be successful for tasks like object and speech recognition, its applicability to question answering (QA) has yet to be well-studied. In this paper, we conduct extensive experiments to investigate the transferability of knowledge learned from a source QA dataset to a target dataset using two QA models. The performance of both models on a TOEFL listening comprehension test (Tseng et al., 2016) and MCTest (Richardson et al., 2013) is significantly improved via a simple transfer learning technique from MovieQA (Tapaswi et al., 2016). In particular, one of the models achieves the state-of-the-art on all target datasets; for the TOEFL listening comprehension test, it outperforms the previous best model by 7%. Finally, we show that transfer learning is helpful even in unsupervised scenarios when correct answers for target QA dataset examples are not available.

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Learning to Encode Text as Human-Readable Summaries using Generative Adversarial Networks
Yaushian Wang | Hung-Yi Lee
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Auto-encoders compress input data into a latent-space representation and reconstruct the original data from the representation. This latent representation is not easily interpreted by humans. In this paper, we propose training an auto-encoder that encodes input text into human-readable sentences, and unpaired abstractive summarization is thereby achieved. The auto-encoder is composed of a generator and a reconstructor. The generator encodes the input text into a shorter word sequence, and the reconstructor recovers the generator input from the generator output. To make the generator output human-readable, a discriminator restricts the output of the generator to resemble human-written sentences. By taking the generator output as the summary of the input text, abstractive summarization is achieved without document-summary pairs as training data. Promising results are shown on both English and Chinese corpora.


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Learning Chinese Word Representations From Glyphs Of Characters
Tzu-Ray Su | Hung-Yi Lee
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we propose new methods to learn Chinese word representations. Chinese characters are composed of graphical components, which carry rich semantics. It is common for a Chinese learner to comprehend the meaning of a word from these graphical components. As a result, we propose models that enhance word representations by character glyphs. The character glyph features are directly learned from the bitmaps of characters by convolutional auto-encoder(convAE), and the glyph features improve Chinese word representations which are already enhanced by character embeddings. Another contribution in this paper is that we created several evaluation datasets in traditional Chinese and made them public.