Heng Ji


2020

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Proceedings of Workshop on Natural Language Processing in E-Commerce
Huasha Zhao | Parikshit Sondhi | Nguyen Bach | Sanjika Hewavitharana | Yifan He | Luo Si | Heng Ji
Proceedings of Workshop on Natural Language Processing in E-Commerce

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Cross-media Structured Common Space for Multimedia Event Extraction
Manling Li | Alireza Zareian | Qi Zeng | Spencer Whitehead | Di Lu | Heng Ji | Shih-Fu Chang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We introduce a new task, MultiMedia Event Extraction, which aims to extract events and their arguments from multimedia documents. We develop the first benchmark and collect a dataset of 245 multimedia news articles with extensively annotated events and arguments. We propose a novel method, Weakly Aligned Structured Embedding (WASE), that encodes structured representations of semantic information from textual and visual data into a common embedding space. The structures are aligned across modalities by employing a weakly supervised training strategy, which enables exploiting available resources without explicit cross-media annotation. Compared to uni-modal state-of-the-art methods, our approach achieves 4.0% and 9.8% absolute F-score gains on text event argument role labeling and visual event extraction. Compared to state-of-the-art multimedia unstructured representations, we achieve 8.3% and 5.0% absolute F-score gains on multimedia event extraction and argument role labeling, respectively. By utilizing images, we extract 21.4% more event mentions than traditional text-only methods.

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A Joint Neural Model for Information Extraction with Global Features
Ying Lin | Heng Ji | Fei Huang | Lingfei Wu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Most existing joint neural models for Information Extraction (IE) use local task-specific classifiers to predict labels for individual instances (e.g., trigger, relation) regardless of their interactions. For example, a victim of a die event is likely to be a victim of an attack event in the same sentence. In order to capture such cross-subtask and cross-instance inter-dependencies, we propose a joint neural framework, OneIE, that aims to extract the globally optimal IE result as a graph from an input sentence. OneIE performs end-to-end IE in four stages: (1) Encoding a given sentence as contextualized word representations; (2) Identifying entity mentions and event triggers as nodes; (3) Computing label scores for all nodes and their pairwise links using local classifiers; (4) Searching for the globally optimal graph with a beam decoder. At the decoding stage, we incorporate global features to capture the cross-subtask and cross-instance interactions. Experiments show that adding global features improves the performance of our model and achieves new state of-the-art on all subtasks. In addition, as OneIE does not use any language-specific feature, we prove it can be easily applied to new languages or trained in a multilingual manner.

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GAIA: A Fine-grained Multimedia Knowledge Extraction System
Manling Li | Alireza Zareian | Ying Lin | Xiaoman Pan | Spencer Whitehead | Brian Chen | Bo Wu | Heng Ji | Shih-Fu Chang | Clare Voss | Daniel Napierski | Marjorie Freedman
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We present the first comprehensive, open source multimedia knowledge extraction system that takes a massive stream of unstructured, heterogeneous multimedia data from various sources and languages as input, and creates a coherent, structured knowledge base, indexing entities, relations, and events, following a rich, fine-grained ontology. Our system, GAIA, enables seamless search of complex graph queries, and retrieves multimedia evidence including text, images and videos. GAIA achieves top performance at the recent NIST TAC SM-KBP2019 evaluation. The system is publicly available at GitHub and DockerHub, with a narrated video that documents the system.

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ReviewRobot: Explainable Paper Review Generation based on Knowledge Synthesis
Qingyun Wang | Qi Zeng | Lifu Huang | Kevin Knight | Heng Ji | Nazneen Fatema Rajani
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

To assist human review process, we build a novel ReviewRobot to automatically assign a review score and write comments for multiple categories such as novelty and meaningful comparison. A good review needs to be knowledgeable, namely that the comments should be constructive and informative to help improve the paper; and explainable by providing detailed evidence. ReviewRobot achieves these goals via three steps: (1) We perform domain-specific Information Extraction to construct a knowledge graph (KG) from the target paper under review, a related work KG from the papers cited by the target paper, and a background KG from a large collection of previous papers in the domain. (2) By comparing these three KGs, we predict a review score and detailed structured knowledge as evidence for each review category. (3) We carefully select and generalize human review sentences into templates, and apply these templates to transform the review scores and evidence into natural language comments. Experimental results show that our review score predictor reaches 71.4%-100% accuracy. Human assessment by domain experts shows that 41.7%-70.5% of the comments generated by ReviewRobot are valid and constructive, and better than human-written ones for 20% of the time. Thus, ReviewRobot can serve as an assistant for paper reviewers, program chairs and authors.

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Cross-lingual Structure Transfer for Zero-resource Event Extraction
Di Lu | Ananya Subburathinam | Heng Ji | Jonathan May | Shih-Fu Chang | Avi Sil | Clare Voss
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Most of the current cross-lingual transfer learning methods for Information Extraction (IE) have been only applied to name tagging. To tackle more complex tasks such as event extraction we need to transfer graph structures (event trigger linked to multiple arguments with various roles) across languages. We develop a novel share-and-transfer framework to reach this goal with three steps: (1) Convert each sentence in any language to language-universal graph structures; in this paper we explore two approaches based on universal dependency parses and complete graphs, respectively. (2) Represent each node in the graph structure with a cross-lingual word embedding so that all sentences in multiple languages can be represented with one shared semantic space. (3) Using this common semantic space, train event extractors from English training data and apply them to languages that do not have any event annotations. Experimental results on three languages (Spanish, Russian and Ukrainian) without any annotations show this framework achieves comparable performance to a state-of-the-art supervised model trained from more than 1,500 manually annotated event mentions.

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Minimize Exposure Bias of Seq2Seq Models in Joint Entity and Relation Extraction
Ranran Haoran Zhang | Qianying Liu | Aysa Xuemo Fan | Heng Ji | Daojian Zeng | Fei Cheng | Daisuke Kawahara | Sadao Kurohashi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Joint entity and relation extraction aims to extract relation triplets from plain text directly. Prior work leverages Sequence-to-Sequence (Seq2Seq) models for triplet sequence generation. However, Seq2Seq enforces an unnecessary order on the unordered triplets and involves a large decoding length associated with error accumulation. These methods introduce exposure bias, which may cause the models overfit to the frequent label combination, thus limiting the generalization ability. We propose a novel Sequence-to-Unordered-Multi-Tree (Seq2UMTree) model to minimize the effects of exposure bias by limiting the decoding length to three within a triplet and removing the order among triplets. We evaluate our model on two datasets, DuIE and NYT, and systematically study how exposure bias alters the performance of Seq2Seq models. Experiments show that the state-of-the-art Seq2Seq model overfits to both datasets while Seq2UMTree shows significantly better generalization. Our code is available at https://github.com/WindChimeRan/OpenJERE.

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Proceedings of the First Joint Workshop on Narrative Understanding, Storylines, and Events
Claire Bonial | Tommaso Caselli | Snigdha Chaturvedi | Elizabeth Clark | Ruihong Huang | Mohit Iyyer | Alejandro Jaimes | Heng Ji | Lara J. Martin | Ben Miller | Teruko Mitamura | Nanyun Peng | Joel Tetreault
Proceedings of the First Joint Workshop on Narrative Understanding, Storylines, and Events

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Near-imperceptible Neural Linguistic Steganography via Self-Adjusting Arithmetic Coding
Jiaming Shen | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Linguistic steganography studies how to hide secret messages in natural language cover texts. Traditional methods aim to transform a secret message into an innocent text via lexical substitution or syntactical modification. Recently, advances in neural language models (LMs) enable us to directly generate cover text conditioned on the secret message. In this study, we present a new linguistic steganography method which encodes secret messages using self-adjusting arithmetic coding based on a neural language model. We formally analyze the statistical imperceptibility of this method and empirically show it outperforms the previous state-of-the-art methods on four datasets by 15.3% and 38.9% in terms of bits/word and KL metrics, respectively. Finally, human evaluations show that 51% of generated cover texts can indeed fool eavesdroppers.

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Connecting the Dots: Event Graph Schema Induction with Path Language Modeling
Manling Li | Qi Zeng | Ying Lin | Kyunghyun Cho | Heng Ji | Jonathan May | Nathanael Chambers | Clare Voss
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Event schemas can guide our understanding and ability to make predictions with respect to what might happen next. We propose a new Event Graph Schema, where two event types are connected through multiple paths involving entities that fill important roles in a coherent story. We then introduce Path Language Model, an auto-regressive language model trained on event-event paths, and select salient and coherent paths to probabilistically construct these graph schemas. We design two evaluation metrics, instance coverage and instance coherence, to evaluate the quality of graph schema induction, by checking when coherent event instances are covered by the schema graph. Intrinsic evaluations show that our approach is highly effective at inducing salient and coherent schemas. Extrinsic evaluations show the induced schema repository provides significant improvement to downstream end-to-end Information Extraction over a state-of-the-art joint neural extraction model, when used as additional global features to unfold instance graphs.

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Semi-supervised New Event Type Induction and Event Detection
Lifu Huang | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Most previous event extraction studies assume a set of target event types and corresponding event annotations are given, which could be very expensive. In this paper, we work on a new task of semi-supervised event type induction, aiming to automatically discover a set of unseen types from a given corpus by leveraging annotations available for a few seen types. We design a Semi-Supervised Vector Quantized Variational Autoencoder framework to automatically learn a discrete latent type representation for each seen and unseen type and optimize them using seen type event annotations. A variational autoencoder is further introduced to enforce the reconstruction of each event mention conditioned on its latent type distribution. Experiments show that our approach can not only achieve state-of-the-art performance on supervised event detection but also discover high-quality new event types.

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Weakly-Supervised Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis via Joint Aspect-Sentiment Topic Embedding
Jiaxin Huang | Yu Meng | Fang Guo | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Aspect-based sentiment analysis of review texts is of great value for understanding user feedback in a fine-grained manner. It has in general two sub-tasks: (i) extracting aspects from each review, and (ii) classifying aspect-based reviews by sentiment polarity. In this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised approach for aspect-based sentiment analysis, which uses only a few keywords describing each aspect/sentiment without using any labeled examples. Existing methods are either designed only for one of the sub-tasks, or are based on topic models that may contain overlapping concepts. We propose to first learn <sentiment, aspect> joint topic embeddings in the word embedding space by imposing regularizations to encourage topic distinctiveness, and then use neural models to generalize the word-level discriminative information by pre-training the classifiers with embedding-based predictions and self-training them on unlabeled data. Our comprehensive performance analysis shows that our method generates quality joint topics and outperforms the baselines significantly (7.4% and 5.1% F1-score gain on average for aspect and sentiment classification respectively) on benchmark datasets.

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Text Classification Using Label Names Only: A Language Model Self-Training Approach
Yu Meng | Yunyi Zhang | Jiaxin Huang | Chenyan Xiong | Heng Ji | Chao Zhang | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Current text classification methods typically require a good number of human-labeled documents as training data, which can be costly and difficult to obtain in real applications. Humans can perform classification without seeing any labeled examples but only based on a small set of words describing the categories to be classified. In this paper, we explore the potential of only using the label name of each class to train classification models on unlabeled data, without using any labeled documents. We use pre-trained neural language models both as general linguistic knowledge sources for category understanding and as representation learning models for document classification. Our method (1) associates semantically related words with the label names, (2) finds category-indicative words and trains the model to predict their implied categories, and (3) generalizes the model via self-training. We show that our model achieves around 90% accuracy on four benchmark datasets including topic and sentiment classification without using any labeled documents but learning from unlabeled data supervised by at most 3 words (1 in most cases) per class as the label name.

2019

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Low-Resource Name Tagging Learned with Weakly Labeled Data
Yixin Cao | Zikun Hu | Tat-seng Chua | Zhiyuan Liu | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Name tagging in low-resource languages or domains suffers from inadequate training data. Existing work heavily relies on additional information, while leaving those noisy annotations unexplored that extensively exist on the web. In this paper, we propose a novel neural model for name tagging solely based on weakly labeled (WL) data, so that it can be applied in any low-resource settings. To take the best advantage of all WL sentences, we split them into high-quality and noisy portions for two modules, respectively: (1) a classification module focusing on the large portion of noisy data can efficiently and robustly pretrain the tag classifier by capturing textual context semantics; and (2) a costly sequence labeling module focusing on high-quality data utilizes Partial-CRFs with non-entity sampling to achieve global optimum. Two modules are combined via shared parameters. Extensive experiments involving five low-resource languages and fine-grained food domain demonstrate our superior performance (6% and 7.8% F1 gains on average) as well as efficiency.

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Cross-lingual Structure Transfer for Relation and Event Extraction
Ananya Subburathinam | Di Lu | Heng Ji | Jonathan May | Shih-Fu Chang | Avirup Sil | Clare Voss
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The identification of complex semantic structures such as events and entity relations, already a challenging Information Extraction task, is doubly difficult from sources written in under-resourced and under-annotated languages. We investigate the suitability of cross-lingual structure transfer techniques for these tasks. We exploit relation- and event-relevant language-universal features, leveraging both symbolic (including part-of-speech and dependency path) and distributional (including type representation and contextualized representation) information. By representing all entity mentions, event triggers, and contexts into this complex and structured multilingual common space, using graph convolutional networks, we can train a relation or event extractor from source language annotations and apply it to the target language. Extensive experiments on cross-lingual relation and event transfer among English, Chinese, and Arabic demonstrate that our approach achieves performance comparable to state-of-the-art supervised models trained on up to 3,000 manually annotated mentions: up to 62.6% F-score for Relation Extraction, and 63.1% F-score for Event Argument Role Labeling. The event argument role labeling model transferred from English to Chinese achieves similar performance as the model trained from Chinese. We thus find that language-universal symbolic and distributional representations are complementary for cross-lingual structure transfer.

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An Attentive Fine-Grained Entity Typing Model with Latent Type Representation
Ying Lin | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We propose a fine-grained entity typing model with a novel attention mechanism and a hybrid type classifier. We advance existing methods in two aspects: feature extraction and type prediction. To capture richer contextual information, we adopt contextualized word representations instead of fixed word embeddings used in previous work. In addition, we propose a two-step mention-aware attention mechanism to enable the model to focus on important words in mentions and contexts. We also present a hybrid classification method beyond binary relevance to exploit type inter-dependency with latent type representation. Instead of independently predicting each type, we predict a low-dimensional vector that encodes latent type features and reconstruct the type vector from this latent representation. Experiment results on multiple data sets show that our model significantly advances the state-of-the-art on fine-grained entity typing, obtaining up to 6.1% and 5.5% absolute gains in macro averaged F-score and micro averaged F-score respectively.

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Improving Question Answering with External Knowledge
Xiaoman Pan | Kai Sun | Dian Yu | Jianshu Chen | Heng Ji | Claire Cardie | Dong Yu
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

We focus on multiple-choice question answering (QA) tasks in subject areas such as science, where we require both broad background knowledge and the facts from the given subject-area reference corpus. In this work, we explore simple yet effective methods for exploiting two sources of external knowledge for subject-area QA. The first enriches the original subject-area reference corpus with relevant text snippets extracted from an open-domain resource (i.e., Wikipedia) that cover potentially ambiguous concepts in the question and answer options. As in other QA research, the second method simply increases the amount of training data by appending additional in-domain subject-area instances. Experiments on three challenging multiple-choice science QA tasks (i.e., ARC-Easy, ARC-Challenge, and OpenBookQA) demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods: in comparison to the previous state-of-the-art, we obtain absolute gains in accuracy of up to 8.1%, 13.0%, and 12.8%, respectively. While we observe consistent gains when we introduce knowledge from Wikipedia, we find that employing additional QA training instances is not uniformly helpful: performance degrades when the added instances exhibit a higher level of difficulty than the original training data. As one of the first studies on exploiting unstructured external knowledge for subject-area QA, we hope our methods, observations, and discussion of the exposed limitations may shed light on further developments in the area.

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Cross-lingual Joint Entity and Word Embedding to Improve Entity Linking and Parallel Sentence Mining
Xiaoman Pan | Thamme Gowda | Heng Ji | Jonathan May | Scott Miller
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

Entities, which refer to distinct objects in the real world, can be viewed as language universals and used as effective signals to generate less ambiguous semantic representations and align multiple languages. We propose a novel method, CLEW, to generate cross-lingual data that is a mix of entities and contextual words based on Wikipedia. We replace each anchor link in the source language with its corresponding entity title in the target language if it exists, or in the source language otherwise. A cross-lingual joint entity and word embedding learned from this kind of data not only can disambiguate linkable entities but can also effectively represent unlinkable entities. Because this multilingual common space directly relates the semantics of contextual words in the source language to that of entities in the target language, we leverage it for unsupervised cross-lingual entity linking. Experimental results show that CLEW significantly advances the state-of-the-art: up to 3.1% absolute F-score gain for unsupervised cross-lingual entity linking. Moreover, it provides reliable alignment on both the word/entity level and the sentence level, and thus we use it to mine parallel sentences for all (302, 2) language pairs in Wikipedia.

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Zero-Shot Cross-lingual Name Retrieval for Low-Resource Languages
Kevin Blissett | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

In this paper we address a challenging cross-lingual name retrieval task. Given an English named entity query, we aim to find all name mentions in documents in low-resource languages. We present a novel method which relies on zero annotation or resources from the target language. By leveraging freely available, cross-lingual resources and a small amount of training data from another language, we are able to perform name retrieval on a new language without any additional training data. Our method proceeds in a multi-step process: first, we pre-train a language-independent orthographic encoder using Wikipedia inter-lingual links from dozens of languages. Next, we gather user expectations about important entities in an English comparable document and compare those expected entities with actual spans of the target language text in order to perform name finding. Our method shows 11.6% absolute F-score improvement over state-of-the-art methods.

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Syntax-aware Multi-task Graph Convolutional Networks for Biomedical Relation Extraction
Diya Li | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the Tenth International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis (LOUHI 2019)

In this paper we tackle two unique challenges in biomedical relation extraction. The first challenge is that the contextual information between two entity mentions often involves sophisticated syntactic structures. We propose a novel graph convolutional networks model that incorporates dependency parsing and contextualized embedding to effectively capture comprehensive contextual information. The second challenge is that most of the benchmark data sets for this task are quite imbalanced because more than 80% mention pairs are negative instances (i.e., no relations). We propose a multi-task learning framework to jointly model relation identification and classification tasks to propagate supervision signals from each other and apply a focal loss to focus training on ambiguous mention pairs. By applying these two strategies, experiments show that our model achieves state-of-the-art F-score on the 2013 drug-drug interaction extraction task.

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Reliability-aware Dynamic Feature Composition for Name Tagging
Ying Lin | Liyuan Liu | Heng Ji | Dong Yu | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Word embeddings are widely used on a variety of tasks and can substantially improve the performance. However, their quality is not consistent throughout the vocabulary due to the long-tail distribution of word frequency. Without sufficient contexts, rare word embeddings are usually less reliable than those of common words. However, current models typically trust all word embeddings equally regardless of their reliability and thus may introduce noise and hurt the performance. Since names often contain rare and uncommon words, this problem is particularly critical for name tagging. In this paper, we propose a novel reliability-aware name tagging model to tackle this issue. We design a set of word frequency-based reliability signals to indicate the quality of each word embedding. Guided by the reliability signals, the model is able to dynamically select and compose features such as word embedding and character-level representation using gating mechanisms. For example, if an input word is rare, the model relies less on its word embedding and assigns higher weights to its character and contextual features. Experiments on OntoNotes 5.0 show that our model outperforms the baseline model by 2.7% absolute gain in F-score. In cross-genre experiments on five genres in OntoNotes, our model improves the performance for most genre pairs and obtains up to 5% absolute F-score gain.

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PaperRobot: Incremental Draft Generation of Scientific Ideas
Qingyun Wang | Lifu Huang | Zhiying Jiang | Kevin Knight | Heng Ji | Mohit Bansal | Yi Luan
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present a PaperRobot who performs as an automatic research assistant by (1) conducting deep understanding of a large collection of human-written papers in a target domain and constructing comprehensive background knowledge graphs (KGs); (2) creating new ideas by predicting links from the background KGs, by combining graph attention and contextual text attention; (3) incrementally writing some key elements of a new paper based on memory-attention networks: from the input title along with predicted related entities to generate a paper abstract, from the abstract to generate conclusion and future work, and finally from future work to generate a title for a follow-on paper. Turing Tests, where a biomedical domain expert is asked to compare a system output and a human-authored string, show PaperRobot generated abstracts, conclusion and future work sections, and new titles are chosen over human-written ones up to 30%, 24% and 12% of the time, respectively.

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Keep Meeting Summaries on Topic: Abstractive Multi-Modal Meeting Summarization
Manling Li | Lingyu Zhang | Heng Ji | Richard J. Radke
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Transcripts of natural, multi-person meetings differ significantly from documents like news articles, which can make Natural Language Generation models for generating summaries unfocused. We develop an abstractive meeting summarizer from both videos and audios of meeting recordings. Specifically, we propose a multi-modal hierarchical attention across three levels: segment, utterance and word. To narrow down the focus into topically-relevant segments, we jointly model topic segmentation and summarization. In addition to traditional text features, we introduce new multi-modal features derived from visual focus of attention, based on the assumption that the utterance is more important if the speaker receives more attention. Experiments show that our model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art with both BLEU and ROUGE measures.

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Cross-lingual NIL Entity Clustering for Low-resource Languages
Kevin Blissett | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Models of Reference, Anaphora and Coreference

Clustering unlinkable entity mentions across documents in multiple languages (cross-lingual NIL Clustering) is an important task as part of Entity Discovery and Linking (EDL). This task has been largely neglected by the EDL community because it is challenging to outperform simple edit distance or other heuristics based baselines. We propose a novel approach based on encoding the orthographic similarity of the mentions using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) architecture. Our model adapts a training procedure from the one-shot facial recognition literature in order to achieve this. We also perform several exploratory probing tasks on our name encodings in order to determine what specific types of information are likely to be encoded by our model. Experiments show our approach provides up to a 6.6% absolute CEAFm F-Score improvement over state-of-the-art methods and successfully captures phonological relations across languages.

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Biomedical Event Extraction based on Knowledge-driven Tree-LSTM
Diya Li | Lifu Huang | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Event extraction for the biomedical domain is more challenging than that in the general news domain since it requires broader acquisition of domain-specific knowledge and deeper understanding of complex contexts. To better encode contextual information and external background knowledge, we propose a novel knowledge base (KB)-driven tree-structured long short-term memory networks (Tree-LSTM) framework, incorporating two new types of features: (1) dependency structures to capture wide contexts; (2) entity properties (types and category descriptions) from external ontologies via entity linking. We evaluate our approach on the BioNLP shared task with Genia dataset and achieve a new state-of-the-art result. In addition, both quantitative and qualitative studies demonstrate the advancement of the Tree-LSTM and the external knowledge representation for biomedical event extraction.

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A Grounded Unsupervised Universal Part-of-Speech Tagger for Low-Resource Languages
Ronald Cardenas | Ying Lin | Heng Ji | Jonathan May
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Unsupervised part of speech (POS) tagging is often framed as a clustering problem, but practical taggers need to ground their clusters as well. Grounding generally requires reference labeled data, a luxury a low-resource language might not have. In this work, we describe an approach for low-resource unsupervised POS tagging that yields fully grounded output and requires no labeled training data. We find the classic method of Brown et al. (1992) clusters well in our use case and employ a decipherment-based approach to grounding. This approach presumes a sequence of cluster IDs is a ‘ciphertext’ and seeks a POS tag-to-cluster ID mapping that will reveal the POS sequence. We show intrinsically that, despite the difficulty of the task, we obtain reasonable performance across a variety of languages. We also show extrinsically that incorporating our POS tagger into a name tagger leads to state-of-the-art tagging performance in Sinhalese and Kinyarwanda, two languages with nearly no labeled POS data available. We further demonstrate our tagger’s utility by incorporating it into a true ‘zero-resource’ variant of the MALOPA (Ammar et al., 2016) dependency parser model that removes the current reliance on multilingual resources and gold POS tags for new languages. Experiments show that including our tagger makes up much of the accuracy lost when gold POS tags are unavailable.

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Cross-lingual Multi-Level Adversarial Transfer to Enhance Low-Resource Name Tagging
Lifu Huang | Heng Ji | Jonathan May
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We focus on improving name tagging for low-resource languages using annotations from related languages. Previous studies either directly project annotations from a source language to a target language using cross-lingual representations or use a shared encoder in a multitask network to transfer knowledge. These approaches inevitably introduce noise to the target language annotation due to mismatched source-target sentence structures. To effectively transfer the resources, we develop a new neural architecture that leverages multi-level adversarial transfer: (1) word-level adversarial training, which projects source language words into the same semantic space as those of the target language without using any parallel corpora or bilingual gazetteers, and (2) sentence-level adversarial training, which yields language-agnostic sequential features. Our neural architecture outperforms previous approaches on CoNLL data sets. Moreover, on 10 low-resource languages, our approach achieves up to 16% absolute F-score gain over all high-performing baselines on cross-lingual transfer without using any target-language resources.

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Multilingual Entity, Relation, Event and Human Value Extraction
Manling Li | Ying Lin | Joseph Hoover | Spencer Whitehead | Clare Voss | Morteza Dehghani | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Demonstrations)

This paper demonstrates a state-of-the-art end-to-end multilingual (English, Russian, and Ukrainian) knowledge extraction system that can perform entity discovery and linking, relation extraction, event extraction, and coreference. It extracts and aggregates knowledge elements across multiple languages and documents as well as provides visualizations of the results along three dimensions: temporal (as displayed in an event timeline), spatial (as displayed in an event heatmap), and relational (as displayed in entity-relation networks). For our system to further support users’ analyses of causal sequences of events in complex situations, we also integrate a wide range of human moral value measures, independently derived from region-based survey, into the event heatmap. This system is publicly available as a docker container and a live demo.

2018

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Error Analysis of Uyghur Name Tagging: Language-specific Techniques and Remaining Challenges
Halidanmu Abudukelimu | Abudoukelimu Abulizi | Boliang Zhang | Xiaoman Pan | Di Lu | Heng Ji | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Global Attention for Name Tagging
Boliang Zhang | Spencer Whitehead | Lifu Huang | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Many name tagging approaches use local contextual information with much success, but can fail when the local context is ambiguous or limited. We present a new framework to improve name tagging by utilizing local, document-level, and corpus-level contextual information. For each word, we retrieve document-level context from other sentences within the same document and corpus-level context from sentences in other documents. We propose a model that learns to incorporate document-level and corpus-level contextual information alongside local contextual information via document-level and corpus-level attentions, which dynamically weight their respective contextual information and determines the influence of this information through gating mechanisms. Experiments on benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of our approach, which achieves state-of-the-art results for Dutch, German, and Spanish on the CoNLL-2002 and CoNLL-2003 datasets. We will make our code and pre-trained models publicly available for research purposes.

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Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)
Marilyn Walker | Heng Ji | Amanda Stent
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

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Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)
Marilyn Walker | Heng Ji | Amanda Stent
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

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ELISA-EDL: A Cross-lingual Entity Extraction, Linking and Localization System
Boliang Zhang | Ying Lin | Xiaoman Pan | Di Lu | Jonathan May | Kevin Knight | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations

We demonstrate ELISA-EDL, a state-of-the-art re-trainable system to extract entity mentions from low-resource languages, link them to external English knowledge bases, and visualize locations related to disaster topics on a world heatmap. We make all of our data sets, resources and system training and testing APIs publicly available for research purpose.

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Multi-lingual Common Semantic Space Construction via Cluster-consistent Word Embedding
Lifu Huang | Kyunghyun Cho | Boliang Zhang | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We construct a multilingual common semantic space based on distributional semantics, where words from multiple languages are projected into a shared space via which all available resources and knowledge can be shared across multiple languages. Beyond word alignment, we introduce multiple cluster-level alignments and enforce the word clusters to be consistently distributed across multiple languages. We exploit three signals for clustering: (1) neighbor words in the monolingual word embedding space; (2) character-level information; and (3) linguistic properties (e.g., apposition, locative suffix) derived from linguistic structure knowledge bases available for thousands of languages. We introduce a new cluster-consistent correlational neural network to construct the common semantic space by aligning words as well as clusters. Intrinsic evaluation on monolingual and multilingual QVEC tasks shows our approach achieves significantly higher correlation with linguistic features which are extracted from manually crafted lexical resources than state-of-the-art multi-lingual embedding learning methods do. Using low-resource language name tagging as a case study for extrinsic evaluation, our approach achieves up to 14.6% absolute F-score gain over the state of the art on cross-lingual direct transfer. Our approach is also shown to be robust even when the size of bilingual dictionary is small.

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Genre Separation Network with Adversarial Training for Cross-genre Relation Extraction
Ge Shi | Chong Feng | Lifu Huang | Boliang Zhang | Heng Ji | Lejian Liao | Heyan Huang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Relation Extraction suffers from dramatical performance decrease when training a model on one genre and directly applying it to a new genre, due to the distinct feature distributions. Previous studies address this problem by discovering a shared space across genres using manually crafted features, which requires great human effort. To effectively automate this process, we design a genre-separation network, which applies two encoders, one genre-independent and one genre-shared, to explicitly extract genre-specific and genre-agnostic features. Then we train a relation classifier using the genre-agnostic features on the source genre and directly apply to the target genre. Experiment results on three distinct genres of the ACE dataset show that our approach achieves up to 6.1% absolute F1-score gain compared to previous methods. By incorporating a set of external linguistic features, our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art by 1.7% absolute F1 gain. We make all programs of our model publicly available for research purpose

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Fine-grained Coordinated Cross-lingual Text Stream Alignment for Endless Language Knowledge Acquisition
Tao Ge | Qing Dou | Heng Ji | Lei Cui | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper proposes to study fine-grained coordinated cross-lingual text stream alignment through a novel information network decipherment paradigm. We use Burst Information Networks as media to represent text streams and present a simple yet effective network decipherment algorithm with diverse clues to decipher the networks for accurate text stream alignment. Experiments on Chinese-English news streams show our approach not only outperforms previous approaches on bilingual lexicon extraction from coordinated text streams but also can harvest high-quality alignments from large amounts of streaming data for endless language knowledge mining, which makes it promising to be a new paradigm for automatic language knowledge acquisition.

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Incorporating Background Knowledge into Video Description Generation
Spencer Whitehead | Heng Ji | Mohit Bansal | Shih-Fu Chang | Clare Voss
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Most previous efforts toward video captioning focus on generating generic descriptions, such as, “A man is talking.” We collect a news video dataset to generate enriched descriptions that include important background knowledge, such as named entities and related events, which allows the user to fully understand the video content. We develop an approach that uses video meta-data to retrieve topically related news documents for a video and extracts the events and named entities from these documents. Then, given the video as well as the extracted events and entities, we generate a description using a Knowledge-aware Video Description network. The model learns to incorporate entities found in the topically related documents into the description via an entity pointer network and the generation procedure is guided by the event and entity types from the topically related documents through a knowledge gate, which is a gating mechanism added to the model’s decoder that takes a one-hot vector of these types. We evaluate our approach on the new dataset of news videos we have collected, establishing the first benchmark for this dataset as well as proposing a new metric to evaluate these descriptions.

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Entity-aware Image Caption Generation
Di Lu | Spencer Whitehead | Lifu Huang | Heng Ji | Shih-Fu Chang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Current image captioning approaches generate descriptions which lack specific information, such as named entities that are involved in the images. In this paper we propose a new task which aims to generate informative image captions, given images and hashtags as input. We propose a simple but effective approach to tackle this problem. We first train a convolutional neural networks - long short term memory networks (CNN-LSTM) model to generate a template caption based on the input image. Then we use a knowledge graph based collective inference algorithm to fill in the template with specific named entities retrieved via the hashtags. Experiments on a new benchmark dataset collected from Flickr show that our model generates news-style image descriptions with much richer information. Our model outperforms unimodal baselines significantly with various evaluation metrics.

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Visualizing Group Dynamics based on Multiparty Meeting Understanding
Ni Zhang | Tongtao Zhang | Indrani Bhattacharya | Heng Ji | Rich Radke
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Group discussions are usually aimed at sharing opinions, reaching consensus and making good decisions based on group knowledge. During a discussion, participants might adjust their own opinions as well as tune their attitudes towards others’ opinions, based on the unfolding interactions. In this paper, we demonstrate a framework to visualize such dynamics; at each instant of a conversation, the participants’ opinions and potential influence on their counterparts is easily visualized. We use multi-party meeting opinion mining based on bipartite graphs to extract opinions and calculate mutual influential factors, using the Lunar Survival Task as a study case.

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A Multi-lingual Multi-task Architecture for Low-resource Sequence Labeling
Ying Lin | Shengqi Yang | Veselin Stoyanov | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We propose a multi-lingual multi-task architecture to develop supervised models with a minimal amount of labeled data for sequence labeling. In this new architecture, we combine various transfer models using two layers of parameter sharing. On the first layer, we construct the basis of the architecture to provide universal word representation and feature extraction capability for all models. On the second level, we adopt different parameter sharing strategies for different transfer schemes. This architecture proves to be particularly effective for low-resource settings, when there are less than 200 training sentences for the target task. Using Name Tagging as a target task, our approach achieved 4.3%-50.5% absolute F-score gains compared to the mono-lingual single-task baseline model.

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Visual Attention Model for Name Tagging in Multimodal Social Media
Di Lu | Leonardo Neves | Vitor Carvalho | Ning Zhang | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Everyday billions of multimodal posts containing both images and text are shared in social media sites such as Snapchat, Twitter or Instagram. This combination of image and text in a single message allows for more creative and expressive forms of communication, and has become increasingly common in such sites. This new paradigm brings new challenges for natural language understanding, as the textual component tends to be shorter, more informal, and often is only understood if combined with the visual context. In this paper, we explore the task of name tagging in multimodal social media posts. We start by creating two new multimodal datasets: the first based on Twitter posts and the second based on Snapchat captions (exclusively submitted to public and crowd-sourced stories). We then propose a novel model architecture based on Visual Attention that not only provides deeper visual understanding on the decisions of the model, but also significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art baseline methods for this task.

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Zero-Shot Transfer Learning for Event Extraction
Lifu Huang | Heng Ji | Kyunghyun Cho | Ido Dagan | Sebastian Riedel | Clare Voss
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Most previous supervised event extraction methods have relied on features derived from manual annotations, and thus cannot be applied to new event types without extra annotation effort. We take a fresh look at event extraction and model it as a generic grounding problem: mapping each event mention to a specific type in a target event ontology. We design a transferable architecture of structural and compositional neural networks to jointly represent and map event mentions and types into a shared semantic space. Based on this new framework, we can select, for each event mention, the event type which is semantically closest in this space as its type. By leveraging manual annotations available for a small set of existing event types, our framework can be applied to new unseen event types without additional manual annotations. When tested on 23 unseen event types, our zero-shot framework, without manual annotations, achieved performance comparable to a supervised model trained from 3,000 sentences annotated with 500 event mentions.

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Paper Abstract Writing through Editing Mechanism
Qingyun Wang | Zhihao Zhou | Lifu Huang | Spencer Whitehead | Boliang Zhang | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

We present a paper abstract writing system based on an attentive neural sequence-to-sequence model that can take a title as input and automatically generate an abstract. We design a novel Writing-editing Network that can attend to both the title and the previously generated abstract drafts and then iteratively revise and polish the abstract. With two series of Turing tests, where the human judges are asked to distinguish the system-generated abstracts from human-written ones, our system passes Turing tests by junior domain experts at a rate up to 30% and by non-expert at a rate up to 80%.

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Platforms for Non-speakers Annotating Names in Any Language
Ying Lin | Cash Costello | Boliang Zhang | Di Lu | Heng Ji | James Mayfield | Paul McNamee
Proceedings of ACL 2018, System Demonstrations

We demonstrate two annotation platforms that allow an English speaker to annotate names for any language without knowing the language. These platforms provided high-quality ’‘silver standard” annotations for low-resource language name taggers (Zhang et al., 2017) that achieved state-of-the-art performance on two surprise languages (Oromo and Tigrinya) at LoreHLT20171 and ten languages at TAC-KBP EDL2017 (Ji et al., 2017). We discuss strengths and limitations and compare other methods of creating silver- and gold-standard annotations using native speakers. We will make our tools publicly available for research use.

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Multi-lingual Entity Discovery and Linking
Avi Sil | Heng Ji | Dan Roth | Silviu-Petru Cucerzan
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

The primary goals of this tutorial are to review the framework of cross-lingual EL and motivate it as a broad paradigm for the Information Extraction task. We will start by discussing the traditional EL techniques and metrics and address questions relevant to the adequacy of these to across domains and languages. We will then present more recent approaches such as Neural EL, discuss the basic building blocks of a state-of-the-art neural EL system and analyze some of the current results on English EL. We will then proceed to Cross-lingual EL and discuss methods that work across languages. In particular, we will discuss and compare multiple methods that make use of multi-lingual word embeddings. We will also present EL methods that work for both name tagging and linking in very low resource languages. Finally, we will discuss the uses of cross-lingual EL in a variety of applications like search engines and commercial product selling applications. Also, contrary to the 2014 EL tutorial, we will also focus on Entity Discovery which is an essential component of EL.

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Chengyu Cloze Test
Zhiying Jiang | Boliang Zhang | Lifu Huang | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

We present a neural recommendation model for Chengyu, which is a special type of Chinese idiom. Given a query, which is a sentence with an empty slot where the Chengyu is taken out, our model will recommend the best Chengyu candidate that best fits the slot context. The main challenge lies in that the literal meaning of a Chengyu is usually very different from it’s figurative meaning. We propose a new neural approach to leverage the definition of each Chengyu and incorporate it as background knowledge. Experiments on both Chengyu cloze test and coherence checking in college entrance exams show that our system achieves 89.5% accuracy on cloze test and outperforms human subjects who attended competitive universities in China. We will make all of our data sets and resources publicly available as a new benchmark for research purposes.

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Creative Language Encoding under Censorship
Heng Ji | Kevin Knight
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Internet Freedom

People often create obfuscated language for online communication to avoid Internet censorship, share sensitive information, express strong sentiment or emotion, plan for secret actions, trade illegal products, or simply hold interesting conversations. In this position paper we systematically categorize human-created obfuscated language on various levels, investigate their basic mechanisms, give an overview on automated techniques needed to simulate human encoding. These encoders have potential to frustrate and evade, co-evolve with dynamic human or automated decoders, and produce interesting and adoptable code words. We also summarize remaining challenges for future research on the interaction between Natural Language Processing (NLP) and encryption, and leveraging NLP techniques for encoding and decoding.

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Describing a Knowledge Base
Qingyun Wang | Xiaoman Pan | Lifu Huang | Boliang Zhang | Zhiying Jiang | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

We aim to automatically generate natural language descriptions about an input structured knowledge base (KB). We build our generation framework based on a pointer network which can copy facts from the input KB, and add two attention mechanisms: (i) slot-aware attention to capture the association between a slot type and its corresponding slot value; and (ii) a new table position self-attention to capture the inter-dependencies among related slots. For evaluation, besides standard metrics including BLEU, METEOR, and ROUGE, we propose a KB reconstruction based metric by extracting a KB from the generation output and comparing it with the input KB. We also create a new data set which includes 106,216 pairs of structured KBs and their corresponding natural language descriptions for two distinct entity types. Experiments show that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods. The reconstructed KB achieves 68.8% - 72.6% F-score.

2017

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Bridge Text and Knowledge by Learning Multi-Prototype Entity Mention Embedding
Yixin Cao | Lifu Huang | Heng Ji | Xu Chen | Juanzi Li
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Integrating text and knowledge into a unified semantic space has attracted significant research interests recently. However, the ambiguity in the common space remains a challenge, namely that the same mention phrase usually refers to various entities. In this paper, to deal with the ambiguity of entity mentions, we propose a novel Multi-Prototype Mention Embedding model, which learns multiple sense embeddings for each mention by jointly modeling words from textual contexts and entities derived from a knowledge base. In addition, we further design an efficient language model based approach to disambiguate each mention to a specific sense. In experiments, both qualitative and quantitative analysis demonstrate the high quality of the word, entity and multi-prototype mention embeddings. Using entity linking as a study case, we apply our disambiguation method as well as the multi-prototype mention embeddings on the benchmark dataset, and achieve state-of-the-art performance.

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Cross-lingual Name Tagging and Linking for 282 Languages
Xiaoman Pan | Boliang Zhang | Jonathan May | Joel Nothman | Kevin Knight | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The ambitious goal of this work is to develop a cross-lingual name tagging and linking framework for 282 languages that exist in Wikipedia. Given a document in any of these languages, our framework is able to identify name mentions, assign a coarse-grained or fine-grained type to each mention, and link it to an English Knowledge Base (KB) if it is linkable. We achieve this goal by performing a series of new KB mining methods: generating “silver-standard” annotations by transferring annotations from English to other languages through cross-lingual links and KB properties, refining annotations through self-training and topic selection, deriving language-specific morphology features from anchor links, and mining word translation pairs from cross-lingual links. Both name tagging and linking results for 282 languages are promising on Wikipedia data and on-Wikipedia data.

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List-only Entity Linking
Ying Lin | Chin-Yew Lin | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Traditional Entity Linking (EL) technologies rely on rich structures and properties in the target knowledge base (KB). However, in many applications, the KB may be as simple and sparse as lists of names of the same type (e.g., lists of products). We call it as List-only Entity Linking problem. Fortunately, some mentions may have more cues for linking, which can be used as seed mentions to bridge other mentions and the uninformative entities. In this work, we select most linkable mentions as seed mentions and disambiguate other mentions by comparing them with the seed mentions rather than directly with the entities. Our experiments on linking mentions to seven automatically mined lists show promising results and demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

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Proceedings of ACL 2017, System Demonstrations
Mohit Bansal | Heng Ji
Proceedings of ACL 2017, System Demonstrations

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Embracing Non-Traditional Linguistic Resources for Low-resource Language Name Tagging
Boliang Zhang | Di Lu | Xiaoman Pan | Ying Lin | Halidanmu Abudukelimu | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Current supervised name tagging approaches are inadequate for most low-resource languages due to the lack of annotated data and actionable linguistic knowledge. All supervised learning methods (including deep neural networks (DNN)) are sensitive to noise and thus they are not quite portable without massive clean annotations. We found that the F-scores of DNN-based name taggers drop rapidly (20%-30%) when we replace clean manual annotations with noisy annotations in the training data. We propose a new solution to incorporate many non-traditional language universal resources that are readily available but rarely explored in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community, such as the World Atlas of Linguistic Structure, CIA names, PanLex and survival guides. We acquire and encode various types of non-traditional linguistic resources into a DNN name tagger. Experiments on three low-resource languages show that feeding linguistic knowledge can make DNN significantly more robust to noise, achieving 8%-22% absolute F-score gains on name tagging without using any human annotation

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Open Relation Extraction and Grounding
Dian Yu | Lifu Huang | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Previous open Relation Extraction (open RE) approaches mainly rely on linguistic patterns and constraints to extract important relational triples from large-scale corpora. However, they lack of abilities to cover diverse relation expressions or measure the relative importance of candidate triples within a sentence. It is also challenging to name the relation type of a relational triple merely based on context words, which could limit the usefulness of open RE in downstream applications. We propose a novel importance-based open RE approach by exploiting the global structure of a dependency tree to extract salient triples. We design an unsupervised relation type naming method by grounding relational triples to a large-scale Knowledge Base (KB) schema, leveraging KB triples and weighted context words associated with relational triples. Experiments on the English Slot Filling 2013 dataset demonstrate that our approach achieves 8.1% higher F-score over state-of-the-art open RE methods.

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Learning Phrase Embeddings from Paraphrases with GRUs
Zhihao Zhou | Lifu Huang | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Curation and Applications of Parallel and Comparable Corpora

Learning phrase representations has been widely explored in many Natural Language Processing tasks (e.g., Sentiment Analysis, Machine Translation) and has shown promising improvements. Previous studies either learn non-compositional phrase representations with general word embedding learning techniques or learn compositional phrase representations based on syntactic structures, which either require huge amounts of human annotations or cannot be easily generalized to all phrases. In this work, we propose to take advantage of large-scaled paraphrase database and present a pairwise-GRU framework to generate compositional phrase representations. Our framework can be re-used to generate representations for any phrases. Experimental results show that our framework achieves state-of-the-art results on several phrase similarity tasks.

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Heterogeneous Supervision for Relation Extraction: A Representation Learning Approach
Liyuan Liu | Xiang Ren | Qi Zhu | Shi Zhi | Huan Gui | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Relation extraction is a fundamental task in information extraction. Most existing methods have heavy reliance on annotations labeled by human experts, which are costly and time-consuming. To overcome this drawback, we propose a novel framework, REHession, to conduct relation extractor learning using annotations from heterogeneous information source, e.g., knowledge base and domain heuristics. These annotations, referred as heterogeneous supervision, often conflict with each other, which brings a new challenge to the original relation extraction task: how to infer the true label from noisy labels for a given instance. Identifying context information as the backbone of both relation extraction and true label discovery, we adopt embedding techniques to learn the distributed representations of context, which bridges all components with mutual enhancement in an iterative fashion. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of REHession over the state-of-the-art.

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Identifying and Tracking Sentiments and Topics from Social Media Texts during Natural Disasters
Min Yang | Jincheng Mei | Heng Ji | Wei Zhao | Zhou Zhao | Xiaojun Chen
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We study the problem of identifying the topics and sentiments and tracking their shifts from social media texts in different geographical regions during emergencies and disasters. We propose a location-based dynamic sentiment-topic model (LDST) which can jointly model topic, sentiment, time and Geolocation information. The experimental results demonstrate that LDST performs very well at discovering topics and sentiments from social media and tracking their shifts in different geographical regions during emergencies and disasters. We will release the data and source code after this work is published.

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Improving Slot Filling Performance with Attentive Neural Networks on Dependency Structures
Lifu Huang | Avirup Sil | Heng Ji | Radu Florian
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Slot Filling (SF) aims to extract the values of certain types of attributes (or slots, such as person:cities_of_residence) for a given entity from a large collection of source documents. In this paper we propose an effective DNN architecture for SF with the following new strategies: (1). Take a regularized dependency graph instead of a raw sentence as input to DNN, to compress the wide contexts between query and candidate filler; (2). Incorporate two attention mechanisms: local attention learned from query and candidate filler, and global attention learned from external knowledge bases, to guide the model to better select indicative contexts to determine slot type. Experiments show that this framework outperforms state-of-the-art on both relation extraction (16% absolute F-score gain) and slot filling validation for each individual system (up to 8.5% absolute F-score gain).

2016

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The Gun Violence Database: A new task and data set for NLP
Ellie Pavlick | Heng Ji | Xiaoman Pan | Chris Callison-Burch
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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AFET: Automatic Fine-Grained Entity Typing by Hierarchical Partial-Label Embedding
Xiang Ren | Wenqi He | Meng Qu | Lifu Huang | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Name Tagging for Low-resource Incident Languages based on Expectation-driven Learning
Boliang Zhang | Xiaoman Pan | Tianlu Wang | Ashish Vaswani | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight | Daniel Marcu
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Cross-genre Event Extraction with Knowledge Enrichment
Hao Li | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Cross-media Event Extraction and Recommendation
Di Lu | Clare Voss | Fangbo Tao | Xiang Ren | Rachel Guan | Rostyslav Korolov | Tongtao Zhang | Dongang Wang | Hongzhi Li | Taylor Cassidy | Heng Ji | Shih-fu Chang | Jiawei Han | William Wallace | James Hendler | Mei Si | Lance Kaplan
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations

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Bitext Name Tagging for Cross-lingual Entity Annotation Projection
Dongxu Zhang | Boliang Zhang | Xiaoman Pan | Xiaocheng Feng | Heng Ji | Weiran Xu
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Annotation projection is a practical method to deal with the low resource problem in incident languages (IL) processing. Previous methods on annotation projection mainly relied on word alignment results without any training process, which led to noise propagation caused by word alignment errors. In this paper, we focus on the named entity recognition (NER) task and propose a weakly-supervised framework to project entity annotations from English to IL through bitexts. Instead of directly relying on word alignment results, this framework combines advantages of rule-based methods and deep learning methods by implementing two steps: First, generates a high-confidence entity annotation set on IL side with strict searching methods; Second, uses this high-confidence set to weakly supervise the model training. The model is finally used to accomplish the projecting process. Experimental results on two low-resource ILs show that the proposed method can generate better annotations projected from English-IL parallel corpora. The performance of IL name tagger can also be improved significantly by training on the newly projected IL annotation set.

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Unsupervised Person Slot Filling based on Graph Mining
Dian Yu | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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A Multi-media Approach to Cross-lingual Entity Knowledge Transfer
Di Lu | Xiaoman Pan | Nima Pourdamghani | Shih-Fu Chang | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Liberal Event Extraction and Event Schema Induction
Lifu Huang | Taylor Cassidy | Xiaocheng Feng | Heng Ji | Clare R. Voss | Jiawei Han | Avirup Sil
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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A Language-Independent Neural Network for Event Detection
Xiaocheng Feng | Lifu Huang | Duyu Tang | Heng Ji | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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A Comparison of Event Representations in DEFT
Ann Bies | Zhiyi Song | Jeremy Getman | Joe Ellis | Justin Mott | Stephanie Strassel | Martha Palmer | Teruko Mitamura | Marjorie Freedman | Heng Ji | Tim O’Gorman
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Events

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Building a Cross-document Event-Event Relation Corpus
Yu Hong | Tongtao Zhang | Tim O’Gorman | Sharone Horowit-Hendler | Heng Ji | Martha Palmer
Proceedings of the 10th Linguistic Annotation Workshop held in conjunction with ACL 2016 (LAW-X 2016)

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Leveraging Entity Linking and Related Language Projection to Improve Name Transliteration
Ying Lin | Xiaoman Pan | Aliya Deri | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight
Proceedings of the Sixth Named Entity Workshop

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Image-Image Search for Comparable Corpora Construction
Yu Hong | Liang Yao | Mengyi Liu | Tongtao Zhang | Wenxuan Zhou | Jianmin Yao | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Hybrid Approaches to Translation (HyTra6)

We present a novel method of comparable corpora construction. Unlike the traditional methods which heavily rely on linguistic features, our method only takes image similarity into consid-eration. We use an image-image search engine to obtain similar images, together with the cap-tions in source language and target language. On the basis, we utilize captions of similar imag-es to construct sentence-level bilingual corpora. Experiments on 10,371 target captions show that our method achieves a precision of 0.85 in the top search results.

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Identifying News from Tweets
Jesse Freitas | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the First Workshop on NLP and Computational Social Science

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CAMR at SemEval-2016 Task 8: An Extended Transition-based AMR Parser
Chuan Wang | Sameer Pradhan | Xiaoman Pan | Heng Ji | Nianwen Xue
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)

2015

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Cross-document Event Coreference Resolution based on Cross-media Features
Tongtao Zhang | Hongzhi Li | Heng Ji | Shih-Fu Chang
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Name List Only? Target Entity Disambiguation in Short Texts
Yixin Cao | Juanzi Li | Xiaofei Guo | Shuanhu Bai | Heng Ji | Jie Tang
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Biography-Dependent Collaborative Entity Archiving for Slot Filling
Yu Hong | Xiaobin Wang | Yadong Chen | Jian Wang | Tongtao Zhang | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Language and Domain Independent Entity Linking with Quantified Collective Validation
Han Wang | Jin Guang Zheng | Xiaogang Ma | Peter Fox | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Exploiting Task-Oriented Resources to Learn Word Embeddings for Clinical Abbreviation Expansion
Yue Liu | Tao Ge | Kusum Mathews | Heng Ji | Deborah McGuinness
Proceedings of BioNLP 15

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Unsupervised Entity Linking with Abstract Meaning Representation
Xiaoman Pan | Taylor Cassidy | Ulf Hermjakob | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Why Read if You Can Scan? Trigger Scoping Strategy for Biographical Fact Extraction
Dian Yu | Heng Ji | Sujian Li | Chin-Yew Lin
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Bring you to the past: Automatic Generation of Topically Relevant Event Chronicles
Tao Ge | Wenzhe Pei | Heng Ji | Sujian Li | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Context-aware Entity Morph Decoding
Boliang Zhang | Hongzhao Huang | Xiaoman Pan | Sujian Li | Chin-Yew Lin | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight | Zhen Wen | Yizhou Sun | Jiawei Han | Bulent Yener
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Detecting Deceptive Groups Using Conversations and Network Analysis
Dian Yu | Yulia Tyshchuk | Heng Ji | William Wallace
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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A Dependency-Based Neural Network for Relation Classification
Yang Liu | Furu Wei | Sujian Li | Heng Ji | Ming Zhou | Houfeng Wang
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Seed-Based Event Trigger Labeling: How far can event descriptions get us?
Ofer Bronstein | Ido Dagan | Qi Li | Heng Ji | Anette Frank
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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One Tense per Scene: Predicting Tense in Chinese Conversations
Tao Ge | Heng Ji | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Successful Data Mining Methods for NLP
Jiawei Han | Heng Ji | Yizhou Sun
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Tutorial Abstracts

2014

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Collective Tweet Wikification based on Semi-supervised Graph Regularization
Hongzhao Huang | Yunbo Cao | Xiaojiang Huang | Heng Ji | Chin-Yew Lin
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Incremental Joint Extraction of Entity Mentions and Relations
Qi Li | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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How to Speak a Language without Knowing It
Xing Shi | Kevin Knight | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Two-Stage Hashing for Fast Document Retrieval
Hao Li | Wei Liu | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Be Appropriate and Funny: Automatic Entity Morph Encoding
Boliang Zhang | Hongzhao Huang | Xiaoman Pan | Heng Ji | Kevin Knight | Zhen Wen | Yizhou Sun | Jiawei Han | Bulent Yener
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Wikification and Beyond: The Challenges of Entity and Concept Grounding
Dan Roth | Heng Ji | Ming-Wei Chang | Taylor Cassidy
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorials

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Cross-media Cross-genre Information Ranking based on Multi-media Information Networks
Tongtao Zhang | Haibo Li | Hongzhao Huang | Heng Ji | Min-Hsuan Tsai | Shen-Fu Tsai | Thomas Huang
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Vision and Language

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Analysis and Refinement of Temporal Relation Aggregation
Taylor Cassidy | Heng Ji
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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The Wisdom of Minority: Unsupervised Slot Filling Validation based on Multi-dimensional Truth-Finding
Dian Yu | Hongzhao Huang | Taylor Cassidy | Heng Ji | Chi Wang | Shi Zhi | Jiawei Han | Clare Voss | Malik Magdon-Ismail
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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An Iterative Link-based Method for Parallel Web Page Mining
Le Liu | Yu Hong | Jun Lu | Jun Lang | Heng Ji | Jianmin Yao
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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Joint Learning of Chinese Words, Terms and Keywords
Ziqiang Cao | Sujian Li | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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Constructing Information Networks Using One Single Model
Qi Li | Heng Ji | Yu Hong | Sujian Li
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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Comparison of the Impact of Word Segmentation on Name Tagging for Chinese and Japanese
Haibo Li | Masato Hagiwara | Qi Li | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

Word Segmentation is usually considered an essential step for many Chinese and Japanese Natural Language Processing tasks, such as name tagging. This paper presents several new observations and analysis on the impact of word segmentation on name tagging; (1). Due to the limitation of current state-of-the-art Chinese word segmentation performance, a character-based name tagger can outperform its word-based counterparts for Chinese but not for Japanese; (2). It is crucial to keep segmentation settings (e.g. definitions, specifications, methods) consistent between training and testing for name tagging; (3). As long as (2) is ensured, the performance of word segmentation does not have appreciable impact on Chinese and Japanese name tagging.

2013

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Joint Event Extraction via Structured Prediction with Global Features
Qi Li | Heng Ji | Liang Huang
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Linking Tweets to News: A Framework to Enrich Short Text Data in Social Media
Weiwei Guo | Hao Li | Heng Ji | Mona Diab
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Name-aware Machine Translation
Haibo Li | Jing Zheng | Heng Ji | Qi Li | Wen Wang
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Resolving Entity Morphs in Censored Data
Hongzhao Huang | Zhen Wen | Dian Yu | Heng Ji | Yizhou Sun | Jiawei Han | He Li
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2012

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Linguistic Resources for Entity Linking Evaluation: from Monolingual to Cross-lingual
Xuansong Li | Stephanie Strassel | Heng Ji | Kira Griffitt | Joe Ellis
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

To advance information extraction and question answering technologies toward a more realistic path, the U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) initiated the KBP (Knowledge Base Population) task as one of the TAC (Text Analysis Conference) evaluation tracks. It aims to encourage research in automatic information extraction of named entities from unstructured texts with the ultimate goal of integrating such information into a structured Knowledge Base. The KBP track consists of two types of evaluation: Named Entity Linking (NEL) and Slot Filling. This paper describes the linguistic resource creation efforts at the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) in support of Named Entity Linking evaluation of KBP, focusing on annotation methodologies, process, and features of corpora from 2009 to 2011, with a highlighted analysis of the cross-lingual NEL data. Progressing from monolingual to cross-lingual Entity Linking technologies, the 2011 cross-lingual NEL evaluation targeted multilingual capabilities. Annotation accuracy is presented in comparison with system performance, with promising results from cross-lingual entity linking systems.

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Relabeling Distantly Supervised Training Data for Temporal Knowledge Base Population
Suzanne Tamang | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Automatic Knowledge Base Construction and Web-scale Knowledge Extraction (AKBC-WEKEX)

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Combining Social Cognitive Theories with Linguistic Features for Multi-genre Sentiment Analysis
Hao Li | Yu Chen | Heng Ji | Smaranda Muresan | Dequan Zheng
Proceedings of the 26th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information, and Computation

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Analysis and Enhancement of Wikification for Microblogs with Context Expansion
Taylor Cassidy | Heng Ji | Lev-Arie Ratinov | Arkaitz Zubiaga | Hongzhao Huang
Proceedings of COLING 2012

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Tweet Ranking Based on Heterogeneous Networks
Hongzhao Huang | Arkaitz Zubiaga | Heng Ji | Hongbo Deng | Dong Wang | Hieu Le | Tarek Abdelzaher | Jiawei Han | Alice Leung | John Hancock | Clare Voss
Proceedings of COLING 2012

2011

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Collaborative Ranking: A Case Study on Entity Linking
Zheng Chen | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Cross-lingual Slot Filling from Comparable Corpora
Matthew Snover | Xiang Li | Wen-Pin Lin | Zheng Chen | Suzanne Tamang | Mingmin Ge | Adam Lee | Qi Li | Hao Li | Sam Anzaroot | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora: Comparable Corpora and the Web

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Unsupervised Language-Independent Name Translation Mining from Wikipedia Infoboxes
Wen-Pin Lin | Matthew Snover | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the First workshop on Unsupervised Learning in NLP

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Knowledge Base Population: Successful Approaches and Challenges
Heng Ji | Ralph Grishman
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2010

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Utility Evaluation of Cross-document Information Extraction
Heng Ji | Zheng Chen | Jonathan Feldman | Antonio Gonzalez | Ralph Grishman | Vivek Upadhyay
Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Domain-Independent Novel Event Discovery and Semi-Automatic Event Annotation
Hao Li | Xiang Li | Heng Ji | Yuval Marton
Proceedings of the 24th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

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Graph-Based Clustering for Computational Linguistics: A Survey
Zheng Chen | Heng Ji
Proceedings of TextGraphs-5 - 2010 Workshop on Graph-based Methods for Natural Language Processing

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Challenges from Information Extraction to Information Fusion
Heng Ji
Coling 2010: Posters

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Enhancing Multi-lingual Information Extraction via Cross-Media Inference and Fusion
Adam Lee | Marissa Passantino | Heng Ji | Guojun Qi | Thomas Huang
Coling 2010: Posters

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New Tools for Web-Scale N-grams
Dekang Lin | Kenneth Church | Heng Ji | Satoshi Sekine | David Yarowsky | Shane Bergsma | Kailash Patil | Emily Pitler | Rachel Lathbury | Vikram Rao | Kapil Dalwani | Sushant Narsale
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

While the web provides a fantastic linguistic resource, collecting and processing data at web-scale is beyond the reach of most academic laboratories. Previous research has relied on search engines to collect online information, but this is hopelessly inefficient for building large-scale linguistic resources, such as lists of named-entity types or clusters of distributionally similar words. An alternative to processing web-scale text directly is to use the information provided in an N-gram corpus. An N-gram corpus is an efficient compression of large amounts of text. An N-gram corpus states how often each sequence of words (up to length N) occurs. We propose tools for working with enhanced web-scale N-gram corpora that include richer levels of source annotation, such as part-of-speech tags. We describe a new set of search tools that make use of these tags, and collectively lower the barrier for lexical learning and ambiguity resolution at web-scale. They will allow novel sources of information to be applied to long-standing natural language challenges.

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Annotating Event Chains for Carbon Sequestration Literature
Heng Ji | Xiang Li | Angelo Lucia | Jianting Zhang
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

In this paper we present a project of annotating event chains for an important scientific domain ― carbon sequestration. This domain aims to reduce carbon emissions and has been identified by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) as a grand challenge problem for the 21st century. Given a collection of scientific literature, we identify a set of centroid experiments; and then link and order the observations and events centered around these experiments on temporal or causal chains. We describe the fundamental challenges on annotations and our general solutions to address them. We expect that our annotation efforts will produce significant advances in inter-operability through new information extraction techniques and permit scientists to build knowledge that will provide better understanding of important scientific challenges in this domain, share and re-use of diverse data sets and experimental results in a more efficient manner. In addition, the annotations of metadata and ontology for these literature will provide important support for data lifecycle activities.

2009

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Cross-document Event Extraction and Tracking: Task, Evaluation, Techniques and Challenges
Heng Ji | Ralph Grishman | Zheng Chen | Prashant Gupta
Proceedings of the International Conference RANLP-2009

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Gender and Animacy Knowledge Discovery from Web-Scale N-Grams for Unsupervised Person Mention Detection
Heng Ji | Dekang Lin
Proceedings of the 23rd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation, Volume 1

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Cross-lingual Predicate Cluster Acquisition to Improve Bilingual Event Extraction by Inductive Learning
Heng Ji
Proceedings of the Workshop on Unsupervised and Minimally Supervised Learning of Lexical Semantics

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Can One Language Bootstrap the Other: A Case Study on Event Extraction
Zheng Chen | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2009 Workshop on Semi-supervised Learning for Natural Language Processing

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Automatic Recognition of Logical Relations for English, Chinese and Japanese in the GLARF Framework
Adam Meyers | Michiko Kosaka | Nianwen Xue | Heng Ji | Ang Sun | Shasha Liao | Wei Xu
Proceedings of the Workshop on Semantic Evaluations: Recent Achievements and Future Directions (SEW-2009)

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Transducing Logical Relations from Automatic and Manual GLARF
Adam Meyers | Michiko Kosaka | Heng Ji | Nianwen Xue | Mary Harper | Ang Sun | Wei Xu | Shasha Liao
Proceedings of the Third Linguistic Annotation Workshop (LAW III)

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Mining Name Translations from Comparable Corpora by Creating Bilingual Information Networks
Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora: from Parallel to Non-parallel Corpora (BUCC)

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Graph-based Event Coreference Resolution
Zheng Chen | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2009 Workshop on Graph-based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-4)

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A Pairwise Event Coreference Model, Feature Impact and Evaluation for Event Coreference Resolution
Zheng Chen | Heng Ji | Robert Haralick
Proceedings of the Workshop on Events in Emerging Text Types

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Who, What, When, Where, Why? Comparing Multiple Approaches to the Cross-Lingual 5W Task
Kristen Parton | Kathleen R. McKeown | Bob Coyne | Mona T. Diab | Ralph Grishman | Dilek Hakkani-Tür | Mary Harper | Heng Ji | Wei Yun Ma | Adam Meyers | Sara Stolbach | Ang Sun | Gokhan Tur | Wei Xu | Sibel Yaman
Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the 47th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 4th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the AFNLP

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Predicting Unknown Time Arguments based on Cross-Event Propagation
Prashant Gupta | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Conference Short Papers

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Language Specific Issue and Feature Exploration in Chinese Event Extraction
Zheng Chen | Heng Ji
Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Companion Volume: Short Papers

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Cross-document Temporal and Spatial Person Tracking System Demonstration
Heng Ji | Zheng Chen
Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Companion Volume: Demonstration Session

2008

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Refining Event Extraction through Cross-Document Inference
Heng Ji | Ralph Grishman
Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT

2006

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Analysis and Repair of Name Tagger Errors
Heng Ji | Ralph Grishman
Proceedings of the COLING/ACL 2006 Main Conference Poster Sessions

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Data Selection in Semi-supervised Learning for Name Tagging
Heng Ji | Ralph Grishman
Proceedings of the Workshop on Information Extraction Beyond The Document

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Re-Ranking Algorithms for Name Tagging
Heng Ji | Cynthia Rudin | Ralph Grishman
Proceedings of the Workshop on Computationally Hard Problems and Joint Inference in Speech and Language Processing

2005

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Using Semantic Relations to Refine Coreference Decisions
Heng Ji | David Westbrook | Ralph Grishman
Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Improving Name Tagging by Reference Resolution and Relation Detection
Heng Ji | Ralph Grishman
Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL’05)

2004

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Applying Coreference to Improve Name Recognition
Heng Ji | Ralph Grishman
Proceedings of the Conference on Reference Resolution and Its Applications

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