Greg Durrett


2020

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Neural Syntactic Preordering for Controlled Paraphrase Generation
Tanya Goyal | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Paraphrasing natural language sentences is a multifaceted process: it might involve replacing individual words or short phrases, local rearrangement of content, or high-level restructuring like topicalization or passivization. Past approaches struggle to cover this space of paraphrase possibilities in an interpretable manner. Our work, inspired by pre-ordering literature in machine translation, uses syntactic transformations to softly “reorder” the source sentence and guide our neural paraphrasing model. First, given an input sentence, we derive a set of feasible syntactic rearrangements using an encoder-decoder model. This model operates over a partially lexical, partially syntactic view of the sentence and can reorder big chunks. Next, we use each proposed rearrangement to produce a sequence of position embeddings, which encourages our final encoder-decoder paraphrase model to attend to the source words in a particular order. Our evaluation, both automatic and human, shows that the proposed system retains the quality of the baseline approaches while giving a substantial increase in the diversity of the generated paraphrases.

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Benchmarking Multimodal Regex Synthesis with Complex Structures
Xi Ye | Qiaochu Chen | Isil Dillig | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Existing datasets for regular expression (regex) generation from natural language are limited in complexity; compared to regex tasks that users post on StackOverflow, the regexes in these datasets are simple, and the language used to describe them is not diverse. We introduce StructuredRegex, a new regex synthesis dataset differing from prior ones in three aspects. First, to obtain structurally complex and realistic regexes, we generate the regexes using a probabilistic grammar with pre-defined macros observed from real-world StackOverflow posts. Second, to obtain linguistically diverse natural language descriptions, we show crowdworkers abstract depictions of the underlying regex and ask them to describe the pattern they see, rather than having them paraphrase synthetic language. Third, we augment each regex example with a collection of strings that are and are not matched by the ground truth regex, similar to how real users give examples. Our quantitative and qualitative analysis demonstrates the advantages of StructuredRegex over prior datasets. Further experimental results using various multimodal synthesis techniques highlight the challenge presented by our dataset, including non-local constraints and multi-modal inputs.

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Interpretable Entity Representations through Large-Scale Typing
Yasumasa Onoe | Greg Durrett
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In standard methodology for natural language processing, entities in text are typically embedded in dense vector spaces with pre-trained models. The embeddings produced this way are effective when fed into downstream models, but they require end-task fine-tuning and are fundamentally difficult to interpret. In this paper, we present an approach to creating entity representations that are human readable and achieve high performance on entity-related tasks out of the box. Our representations are vectors whose values correspond to posterior probabilities over fine-grained entity types, indicating the confidence of a typing model’s decision that the entity belongs to the corresponding type. We obtain these representations using a fine-grained entity typing model, trained either on supervised ultra-fine entity typing data (Choi et al. 2018) or distantly-supervised examples from Wikipedia. On entity probing tasks involving recognizing entity identity, our embeddings used in parameter-free downstream models achieve competitive performance with ELMo- and BERT-based embeddings in trained models. We also show that it is possible to reduce the size of our type set in a learning-based way for particular domains. Finally, we show that these embeddings can be post-hoc modified through a small number of rules to incorporate domain knowledge and improve performance.

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Evaluating Factuality in Generation with Dependency-level Entailment
Tanya Goyal | Greg Durrett
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Despite significant progress in text generation models, a serious limitation is their tendency to produce text that is factually inconsistent with information in the input. Recent work has studied whether textual entailment systems can be used to identify factual errors; however, these sentence-level entailment models are trained to solve a different problem than generation filtering and they do not localize which part of a generation is non-factual. In this paper, we propose a new formulation of entailment that decomposes it at the level of dependency arcs. Rather than focusing on aggregate decisions, we instead ask whether the semantic relationship manifested by individual dependency arcs in the generated output is supported by the input. Human judgments on this task are difficult to obtain; we therefore propose a method to automatically create data based on existing entailment or paraphrase corpora. Experiments show that our dependency arc entailment model trained on this data can identify factual inconsistencies in paraphrasing and summarization better than sentence-level methods or those based on question generation, while additionally localizing the erroneous parts of the generation.

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Byte Pair Encoding is Suboptimal for Language Model Pretraining
Kaj Bostrom | Greg Durrett
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

The success of pretrained transformer language models (LMs) in natural language processing has led to a wide range of pretraining setups. In particular, these models employ a variety of subword tokenization methods, most notably byte-pair encoding (BPE) (Sennrich et al., 2016; Gage, 1994), the WordPiece method (Schuster and Nakajima, 2012), and unigram language modeling (Kudo, 2018), to segment text. However, to the best of our knowledge, the literature does not contain a direct evaluation of the impact of tokenization on language model pretraining. We analyze differences between BPE and unigram LM tokenization, finding that the latter method recovers subword units that align more closely with morphology and avoids problems stemming from BPE’s greedy construction procedure. We then compare the fine-tuned task performance of identical transformer masked language models pretrained with these tokenizations. Across downstream tasks and two languages (English and Japanese), we find that the unigram LM tokenization method matches or outperforms BPE. We hope that developers of future pretrained LMs will consider adopting the unigram LM method over the more prevalent BPE.

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Calibration of Pre-trained Transformers
Shrey Desai | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Pre-trained Transformers are now ubiquitous in natural language processing, but despite their high end-task performance, little is known empirically about whether they are calibrated. Specifically, do these models’ posterior probabilities provide an accurate empirical measure of how likely the model is to be correct on a given example? We focus on BERT and RoBERTa in this work, and analyze their calibration across three tasks: natural language inference, paraphrase detection, and commonsense reasoning. For each task, we consider in-domain as well as challenging out-of-domain settings, where models face more examples they should be uncertain about. We show that: (1) when used out-of-the-box, pre-trained models are calibrated in-domain, and compared to baselines, their calibration error out-of-domain can be as much as 3.5x lower; (2) temperature scaling is effective at further reducing calibration error in-domain, and using label smoothing to deliberately increase empirical uncertainty helps calibrate posteriors out-of-domain.

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Compressive Summarization with Plausibility and Salience Modeling
Shrey Desai | Jiacheng Xu | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Compressive summarization systems typically rely on a seed set of syntactic rules to determine under what circumstances deleting a span is permissible, then learn which compressions to actually apply by optimizing for ROUGE. In this work, we propose to relax these explicit syntactic constraints on candidate spans, and instead leave the decision about what to delete to two data-driven criteria: plausibility and salience. Deleting a span is plausible if removing it maintains the grammaticality and factuality of a sentence, and it is salient if it removes important information from the summary. Each of these is judged by a pre-trained Transformer model, and only deletions that are both plausible and not salient can be applied. When integrated into a simple extraction-compression pipeline, our method achieves strong in-domain results on benchmark datasets, and human evaluation shows that the plausibility model generally selects for grammatical and factual deletions. Furthermore, the flexibility of our approach allows it to generalize cross-domain, and we show that our system fine-tuned on only 500 samples from a new domain can match or exceed a strong in-domain extractive model.

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Understanding Neural Abstractive Summarization Models via Uncertainty
Jiacheng Xu | Shrey Desai | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

An advantage of seq2seq abstractive summarization models is that they generate text in a free-form manner, but this flexibility makes it difficult to interpret model behavior. In this work, we analyze summarization decoders in both blackbox and whitebox ways by studying on the entropy, or uncertainty, of the model’s token-level predictions. For two strong pre-trained models, PEGASUS and BART on two summarization datasets, we find a strong correlation between low prediction entropy and where the model copies tokens rather than generating novel text. The decoder’s uncertainty also connects to factors like sentence position and syntactic distance between adjacent pairs of tokens, giving a sense of what factors make a context particularly selective for the model’s next output token. Finally, we study the relationship of decoder uncertainty and attention behavior to understand how attention gives rise to these observed effects in the model. We show that uncertainty is a useful perspective for analyzing summarization and text generation models more broadly.

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Inquisitive Question Generation for High Level Text Comprehension
Wei-Jen Ko | Te-yuan Chen | Yiyan Huang | Greg Durrett | Junyi Jessy Li
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Inquisitive probing questions come naturally to humans in a variety of settings, but is a challenging task for automatic systems. One natural type of question to ask tries to fill a gap in knowledge during text comprehension, like reading a news article: we might ask about background information, deeper reasons behind things occurring, or more. Despite recent progress with data-driven approaches, generating such questions is beyond the range of models trained on existing datasets. We introduce INQUISITIVE, a dataset of ~19K questions that are elicited while a person is reading through a document. Compared to existing datasets, INQUISITIVE questions target more towards high-level (semantic and discourse) comprehension of text. We show that readers engage in a series of pragmatic strategies to seek information. Finally, we evaluate question generation models based on GPT-2 and show that our model is able to generate reasonable questions although the task is challenging, and highlight the importance of context to generate INQUISITIVE questions.

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Sketch-Driven Regular Expression Generation from Natural Language and Examples
Xi Ye | Qiaochu Chen | Xinyu Wang | Isil Dillig | Greg Durrett
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 8

Recent systems for converting natural language descriptions into regular expressions (regexes) have achieved some success, but typically deal with short, formulaic text and can only produce simple regexes. Real-world regexes are complex, hard to describe with brief sentences, and sometimes require examples to fully convey the user’s intent. We present a framework for regex synthesis in this setting where both natural language (NL) and examples are available. First, a semantic parser (either grammar-based or neural) maps the natural language description into an intermediate sketch, which is an incomplete regex containing holes to denote missing components. Then a program synthesizer searches over the regex space defined by the sketch and finds a regex that is consistent with the given string examples. Our semantic parser can be trained purely from weak supervision based on correctness of the synthesized regex, or it can leverage heuristically derived sketches. We evaluate on two prior datasets (Kushman and Barzilay 2013; Locascio et al. 2016) and a real-world dataset from Stack Overflow. Our system achieves state-of-the-art performance on the prior datasets and solves 57% of the real-world dataset, which existing neural systems completely fail on.1

2019

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Effective Use of Transformer Networks for Entity Tracking
Aditya Gupta | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Tracking entities in procedural language requires understanding the transformations arising from actions on entities as well as those entities’ interactions. While self-attention-based pre-trained language encoders like GPT and BERT have been successfully applied across a range of natural language understanding tasks, their ability to handle the nuances of procedural texts is still unknown. In this paper, we explore the use of pre-trained transformer networks for entity tracking tasks in procedural text. First, we test standard lightweight approaches for prediction with pre-trained transformers, and find that these approaches underperforms even simple baselines. We show that much stronger results can be attained by restructuring the input to guide the model to focus on a particular entity. Second, we assess the degree to which the transformer networks capture the process dynamics, investigating such factors as merged entities and oblique entity references. On two different tasks, ingredient detection in recipes and QA over scientific processes, we achieve state-of-the-art results, but our models still largely attend to shallow context clues and do not form complex representations of intermediate process state.

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Query-focused Scenario Construction
Su Wang | Greg Durrett | Katrin Erk
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The news coverage of events often contains not one but multiple incompatible accounts of what happened. We develop a query-based system that extracts compatible sets of events (scenarios) from such data, formulated as one-class clustering. Our system incrementally evaluates each event’s compatibility with already selected events, taking order into account. We use synthetic data consisting of article mixtures for scalable training and evaluate our model on a new human-curated dataset of scenarios about real-world news topics. Stronger neural network models and harder synthetic training settings are both important to achieve high performance, and our final scenario construction system substantially outperforms baselines based on prior work.

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Neural Extractive Text Summarization with Syntactic Compression
Jiacheng Xu | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recent neural network approaches to summarization are largely either selection-based extraction or generation-based abstraction. In this work, we present a neural model for single-document summarization based on joint extraction and syntactic compression. Our model chooses sentences from the document, identifies possible compressions based on constituency parses, and scores those compressions with a neural model to produce the final summary. For learning, we construct oracle extractive-compressive summaries, then learn both of our components jointly with this supervision. Experimental results on the CNN/Daily Mail and New York Times datasets show that our model achieves strong performance (comparable to state-of-the-art systems) as evaluated by ROUGE. Moreover, our approach outperforms an off-the-shelf compression module, and human and manual evaluation shows that our model’s output generally remains grammatical.

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Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)
Colin Cherry | Greg Durrett | George Foster | Reza Haffari | Shahram Khadivi | Nanyun Peng | Xiang Ren | Swabha Swayamdipta
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

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Evaluating Discourse in Structured Text Representations
Elisa Ferracane | Greg Durrett | Junyi Jessy Li | Katrin Erk
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Discourse structure is integral to understanding a text and is helpful in many NLP tasks. Learning latent representations of discourse is an attractive alternative to acquiring expensive labeled discourse data. Liu and Lapata (2018) propose a structured attention mechanism for text classification that derives a tree over a text, akin to an RST discourse tree. We examine this model in detail, and evaluate on additional discourse-relevant tasks and datasets, in order to assess whether the structured attention improves performance on the end task and whether it captures a text’s discourse structure. We find the learned latent trees have little to no structure and instead focus on lexical cues; even after obtaining more structured trees with proposed model modifications, the trees are still far from capturing discourse structure when compared to discourse dependency trees from an existing discourse parser. Finally, ablation studies show the structured attention provides little benefit, sometimes even hurting performance.

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Embedding Time Expressions for Deep Temporal Ordering Models
Tanya Goyal | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Data-driven models have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in inferring the temporal ordering of events in text. However, these models often overlook explicit temporal signals, such as dates and time windows. Rule-based methods can be used to identify the temporal links between these time expressions (timexes), but they fail to capture timexes’ interactions with events and are hard to integrate with the distributed representations of neural net models. In this paper, we introduce a framework to infuse temporal awareness into such models by learning a pre-trained model to embed timexes. We generate synthetic data consisting of pairs of timexes, then train a character LSTM to learn embeddings and classify the timexes’ temporal relation. We evaluate the utility of these embeddings in the context of a strong neural model for event temporal ordering, and show a small increase in performance on the MATRES dataset and more substantial gains on an automatically collected dataset with more frequent event-timex interactions.

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Tracking Discrete and Continuous Entity State for Process Understanding
Aditya Gupta | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP

Procedural text, which describes entities and their interactions as they undergo some process, depicts entities in a uniquely nuanced way. First, each entity may have some observable discrete attributes, such as its state or location; modeling these involves imposing global structure and enforcing consistency. Second, an entity may have properties which are not made explicit but can be effectively induced and tracked by neural networks. In this paper, we propose a structured neural architecture that reflects this dual nature of entity evolution. The model tracks each entity recurrently, updating its hidden continuous representation at each step to contain relevant state information. The global discrete state structure is explicitly modelled with a neural CRF over the changing hidden representation of the entity. This CRF can explicitly capture constraints on entity states over time, enforcing that, for example, an entity cannot move to a location after it is destroyed. We evaluate the performance of our proposed model on QA tasks over process paragraphs in the ProPara dataset and find that our model achieves state-of-the-art results.

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Learning to Denoise Distantly-Labeled Data for Entity Typing
Yasumasa Onoe | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Distantly-labeled data can be used to scale up training of statistical models, but it is typically noisy and that noise can vary with the distant labeling technique. In this work, we propose a two-stage procedure for handling this type of data: denoise it with a learned model, then train our final model on clean and denoised distant data with standard supervised training. Our denoising approach consists of two parts. First, a filtering function discards examples from the distantly labeled data that are wholly unusable. Second, a relabeling function repairs noisy labels for the retained examples. Each of these components is a model trained on synthetically-noised examples generated from a small manually-labeled set. We investigate this approach on the ultra-fine entity typing task of Choi et al. (2018). Our baseline model is an extension of their model with pre-trained ELMo representations, which already achieves state-of-the-art performance. Adding distant data that has been denoised with our learned models gives further performance gains over this base model, outperforming models trained on raw distant data or heuristically-denoised distant data.

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Linguistically-Informed Specificity and Semantic Plausibility for Dialogue Generation
Wei-Jen Ko | Greg Durrett | Junyi Jessy Li
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Sequence-to-sequence models for open-domain dialogue generation tend to favor generic, uninformative responses. Past work has focused on word frequency-based approaches to improving specificity, such as penalizing responses with only common words. In this work, we examine whether specificity is solely a frequency-related notion and find that more linguistically-driven specificity measures are better suited to improving response informativeness. However, we find that forcing a sequence-to-sequence model to be more specific can expose a host of other problems in the responses, including flawed discourse and implausible semantics. We rerank our model’s outputs using externally-trained classifiers targeting each of these identified factors. Experiments show that our final model using linguistically motivated specificity and plausibility reranking improves the informativeness, reasonableness, and grammatically of responses.

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Understanding Dataset Design Choices for Multi-hop Reasoning
Jifan Chen | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Learning multi-hop reasoning has been a key challenge for reading comprehension models, leading to the design of datasets that explicitly focus on it. Ideally, a model should not be able to perform well on a multi-hop question answering task without doing multi-hop reasoning. In this paper, we investigate two recently proposed datasets, WikiHop and HotpotQA. First, we explore sentence-factored models for these tasks; by design, these models cannot do multi-hop reasoning, but they are still able to solve a large number of examples in both datasets. Furthermore, we find spurious correlations in the unmasked version of WikiHop, which make it easy to achieve high performance considering only the questions and answers. Finally, we investigate one key difference between these datasets, namely span-based vs. multiple-choice formulations of the QA task. Multiple-choice versions of both datasets can be easily gamed, and two models we examine only marginally exceed a baseline in this setting. Overall, while these datasets are useful testbeds, high-performing models may not be learning as much multi-hop reasoning as previously thought.

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Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop
Sudipta Kar | Farah Nadeem | Laura Burdick | Greg Durrett | Na-Rae Han
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

2018

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Modeling Semantic Plausibility by Injecting World Knowledge
Su Wang | Greg Durrett | Katrin Erk
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Distributional data tells us that a man can swallow candy, but not that a man can swallow a paintball, since this is never attested. However both are physically plausible events. This paper introduces the task of semantic plausibility: recognizing plausible but possibly novel events. We present a new crowdsourced dataset of semantic plausibility judgments of single events such as man swallow paintball. Simple models based on distributional representations perform poorly on this task, despite doing well on selection preference, but injecting manually elicited knowledge about entity properties provides a substantial performance boost. Our error analysis shows that our new dataset is a great testbed for semantic plausibility models: more sophisticated knowledge representation and propagation could address many of the remaining errors.

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Effective Use of Context in Noisy Entity Linking
David Mueller | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

To disambiguate between closely related concepts, entity linking systems need to effectively distill cues from their context, which may be quite noisy. We investigate several techniques for using these cues in the context of noisy entity linking on short texts. Our starting point is a state-of-the-art attention-based model from prior work; while this model’s attention typically identifies context that is topically relevant, it fails to identify some of the most indicative surface strings, especially those exhibiting lexical overlap with the true title. Augmenting the model with convolutional networks over characters still leaves it largely unable to pick up on these cues compared to sparse features that target them directly, indicating that automatically learning how to identify relevant character-level context features is a hard problem. Our final system outperforms past work on the WikilinksNED test set by 2.8% absolute.

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Picking Apart Story Salads
Su Wang | Eric Holgate | Greg Durrett | Katrin Erk
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

During natural disasters and conflicts, information about what happened is often confusing and messy, and distributed across many sources. We would like to be able to automatically identify relevant information and assemble it into coherent narratives of what happened. To make this task accessible to neural models, we introduce Story Salads, mixtures of multiple documents that can be generated at scale. By exploiting the Wikipedia hierarchy, we can generate salads that exhibit challenging inference problems. Story salads give rise to a novel, challenging clustering task, where the objective is to group sentences from the same narratives. We demonstrate that simple bag-of-words similarity clustering falls short on this task, and that it is necessary to take into account global context and coherence.

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Spherical Latent Spaces for Stable Variational Autoencoders
Jiacheng Xu | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

A hallmark of variational autoencoders (VAEs) for text processing is their combination of powerful encoder-decoder models, such as LSTMs, with simple latent distributions, typically multivariate Gaussians. These models pose a difficult optimization problem: there is an especially bad local optimum where the variational posterior always equals the prior and the model does not use the latent variable at all, a kind of “collapse” which is encouraged by the KL divergence term of the objective. In this work, we experiment with another choice of latent distribution, namely the von Mises-Fisher (vMF) distribution, which places mass on the surface of the unit hypersphere. With this choice of prior and posterior, the KL divergence term now only depends on the variance of the vMF distribution, giving us the ability to treat it as a fixed hyperparameter. We show that doing so not only averts the KL collapse, but consistently gives better likelihoods than Gaussians across a range of modeling conditions, including recurrent language modeling and bag-of-words document modeling. An analysis of the properties of our vMF representations shows that they learn richer and more nuanced structures in their latent representations than their Gaussian counterparts.

2017

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Identifying Products in Online Cybercrime Marketplaces: A Dataset for Fine-grained Domain Adaptation
Greg Durrett | Jonathan K. Kummerfeld | Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick | Rebecca Portnoff | Sadia Afroz | Damon McCoy | Kirill Levchenko | Vern Paxson
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

One weakness of machine-learned NLP models is that they typically perform poorly on out-of-domain data. In this work, we study the task of identifying products being bought and sold in online cybercrime forums, which exhibits particularly challenging cross-domain effects. We formulate a task that represents a hybrid of slot-filling information extraction and named entity recognition and annotate data from four different forums. Each of these forums constitutes its own “fine-grained domain” in that the forums cover different market sectors with different properties, even though all forums are in the broad domain of cybercrime. We characterize these domain differences in the context of a learning-based system: supervised models see decreased accuracy when applied to new forums, and standard techniques for semi-supervised learning and domain adaptation have limited effectiveness on this data, which suggests the need to improve these techniques. We release a dataset of 1,938 annotated posts from across the four forums.

2016

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Capturing Semantic Similarity for Entity Linking with Convolutional Neural Networks
Matthew Francis-Landau | Greg Durrett | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Learning-Based Single-Document Summarization with Compression and Anaphoricity Constraints
Greg Durrett | Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2015

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Disfluency Detection with a Semi-Markov Model and Prosodic Features
James Ferguson | Greg Durrett | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Neural CRF Parsing
Greg Durrett | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2014

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Less Grammar, More Features
David Hall | Greg Durrett | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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A Joint Model for Entity Analysis: Coreference, Typing, and Linking
Greg Durrett | Dan Klein
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

We present a joint model of three core tasks in the entity analysis stack: coreference resolution (within-document clustering), named entity recognition (coarse semantic typing), and entity linking (matching to Wikipedia entities). Our model is formally a structured conditional random field. Unary factors encode local features from strong baselines for each task. We then add binary and ternary factors to capture cross-task interactions, such as the constraint that coreferent mentions have the same semantic type. On the ACE 2005 and OntoNotes datasets, we achieve state-of-the-art results for all three tasks. Moreover, joint modeling improves performance on each task over strong independent baselines.

2013

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Easy Victories and Uphill Battles in Coreference Resolution
Greg Durrett | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Decentralized Entity-Level Modeling for Coreference Resolution
Greg Durrett | David Hall | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Unsupervised Transcription of Historical Documents
Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick | Greg Durrett | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Supervised Learning of Complete Morphological Paradigms
Greg Durrett | John DeNero
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2012

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Syntactic Transfer Using a Bilingual Lexicon
Greg Durrett | Adam Pauls | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning

2011

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An Empirical Investigation of Discounting in Cross-Domain Language Models
Greg Durrett | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies