Gabriel Ilharco


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Evaluating Models’ Local Decision Boundaries via Contrast Sets
Matt Gardner | Yoav Artzi | Victoria Basmov | Jonathan Berant | Ben Bogin | Sihao Chen | Pradeep Dasigi | Dheeru Dua | Yanai Elazar | Ananth Gottumukkala | Nitish Gupta | Hannaneh Hajishirzi | Gabriel Ilharco | Daniel Khashabi | Kevin Lin | Jiangming Liu | Nelson F. Liu | Phoebe Mulcaire | Qiang Ning | Sameer Singh | Noah A. Smith | Sanjay Subramanian | Reut Tsarfaty | Eric Wallace | Ally Zhang | Ben Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Standard test sets for supervised learning evaluate in-distribution generalization. Unfortunately, when a dataset has systematic gaps (e.g., annotation artifacts), these evaluations are misleading: a model can learn simple decision rules that perform well on the test set but do not capture the abilities a dataset is intended to test. We propose a more rigorous annotation paradigm for NLP that helps to close systematic gaps in the test data. In particular, after a dataset is constructed, we recommend that the dataset authors manually perturb the test instances in small but meaningful ways that (typically) change the gold label, creating contrast sets. Contrast sets provide a local view of a model’s decision boundary, which can be used to more accurately evaluate a model’s true linguistic capabilities. We demonstrate the efficacy of contrast sets by creating them for 10 diverse NLP datasets (e.g., DROP reading comprehension, UD parsing, and IMDb sentiment analysis). Although our contrast sets are not explicitly adversarial, model performance is significantly lower on them than on the original test sets—up to 25% in some cases. We release our contrast sets as new evaluation benchmarks and encourage future dataset construction efforts to follow similar annotation processes.

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High Performance Natural Language Processing
Gabriel Ilharco | Cesar Ilharco | Iulia Turc | Tim Dettmers | Felipe Ferreira | Kenton Lee
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Tutorial Abstracts

Scale has played a central role in the rapid progress natural language processing has enjoyed in recent years. While benchmarks are dominated by ever larger models, efficient hardware use is critical for their widespread adoption and further progress in the field. In this cutting-edge tutorial, we will recapitulate the state-of-the-art in natural language processing with scale in perspective. After establishing these foundations, we will cover a wide range of techniques for improving efficiency, including knowledge distillation, quantization, pruning, more efficient architectures, along with case studies and practical implementation tricks.


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Large-Scale Representation Learning from Visually Grounded Untranscribed Speech
Gabriel Ilharco | Yuan Zhang | Jason Baldridge
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Systems that can associate images with their spoken audio captions are an important step towards visually grounded language learning. We describe a scalable method to automatically generate diverse audio for image captioning datasets. This supports pretraining deep networks for encoding both audio and images, which we do via a dual encoder that learns to align latent representations from both modalities. We show that a masked margin softmax loss for such models is superior to the standard triplet loss. We fine-tune these models on the Flickr8k Audio Captions Corpus and obtain state-of-the-art results—improving recall in the top 10 from 29.6% to 49.5%. We also obtain human ratings on retrieval outputs to better assess the impact of incidentally matching image-caption pairs that were not associated in the data, finding that automatic evaluation substantially underestimates the quality of the retrieved results.