Elena Irimia


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The MARCELL Legislative Corpus
Tamás Váradi | Svetla Koeva | Martin Yamalov | Marko Tadić | Bálint Sass | Bartłomiej Nitoń | Maciej Ogrodniczuk | Piotr Pęzik | Verginica Barbu Mititelu | Radu Ion | Elena Irimia | Maria Mitrofan | Vasile Păiș | Dan Tufiș | Radovan Garabík | Simon Krek | Andraz Repar | Matjaž Rihtar | Janez Brank
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This article presents the current outcomes of the MARCELL CEF Telecom project aiming to collect and deeply annotate a large comparable corpus of legal documents. The MARCELL corpus includes 7 monolingual sub-corpora (Bulgarian, Croatian, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Slovak and Slovenian) containing the total body of respective national legislative documents. These sub-corpora are automatically sentence split, tokenized, lemmatized and morphologically and syntactically annotated. The monolingual sub-corpora are complemented by a thematically related parallel corpus (Croatian-English). The metadata and the annotations are uniformly provided for each language specific sub-corpus. Besides the standard morphosyntactic analysis plus named entity and dependency annotation, the corpus is enriched with the IATE and EUROVOC labels. The file format is CoNLL-U Plus Format, containing the ten columns specific to the CoNLL-U format and four extra columns specific to our corpora. The MARCELL corpora represents a rich and valuable source for further studies and developments in machine learning, cross-lingual terminological data extraction and classification.


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The Reference Corpus of the Contemporary Romanian Language (CoRoLa)
Verginica Barbu Mititelu | Dan Tufiș | Elena Irimia
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Ensemble Romanian Dependency Parsing with Neural Networks
Radu Ion | Elena Irimia | Verginica Barbu Mititelu
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


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The IPR-cleared Corpus of Contemporary Written and Spoken Romanian Language
Dan Tufiș | Verginica Barbu Mititelu | Elena Irimia | Ștefan Daniel Dumitrescu | Tiberiu Boroș
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

The article describes the current status of a large national project, CoRoLa, aiming at building a reference corpus for the contemporary Romanian language. Unlike many other national corpora, CoRoLa contains only - IPR cleared texts and speech data, obtained from some of the country’s most representative publishing houses, broadcasting agencies, editorial offices, newspapers and popular bloggers. For the written component 500 million tokens are targeted and for the oral one 300 hours of recordings. The choice of texts is done according to their functional style, domain and subdomain, also with an eye to the international practice. A metadata file (following the CMDI model) is associated to each text file. Collected texts are cleaned and transformed in a format compatible with the tools for automatic processing (segmentation, tokenization, lemmatization, part-of-speech tagging). The paper also presents up-to-date statistics about the structure of the corpus almost two years before its official launching. The corpus will be freely available for searching. Users will be able to download the results of their searches and those original files when not against stipulations in the protocols we have with text providers.


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Universal and Language-specific Dependency Relations for Analysing Romanian
Verginica Barbu Mititelu | Cătălina Mărănduc | Elena Irimia
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Dependency Linguistics (Depling 2015)


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CoRoLa — The Reference Corpus of Contemporary Romanian Language
Verginica Barbu Mititelu | Elena Irimia | Dan Tufiș
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

We present the project of creating CoRoLa, a reference corpus of contemporary Romanian (from 1945 onwards). In the international context, the project finds its place among the initiatives of gathering huge collections of texts, of pre-processing and annotating them at several levels, and also of documenting them with metadata (CMDI). Our project is a joined effort of two institutes of the Romanian Academy. We foresee a corpus of more than 500 million word forms, covering all functional styles of the language. Although the vast majority of texts will be in written form, we target about 300 hours of oral texts, too, obligatorily with associated transcripts. Most of the texts will be from books, while the rest will be harvested from newspapers, booklets, technical reports, etc. The pre-processing includes cleaning the data and harmonising the diacritics, sentence splitting and tokenization. Annotation will be done at a morphological level in a first stage, followed by lemmatization, with the possibility of adding syntactic, semantic and discourse annotation in a later stage. A core of CoRoLa is described in the article. The target users of our corpus will be researchers in linguistics and language processing, teachers of Romanian, students.


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ROMBAC: The Romanian Balanced Annotated Corpus
Radu Ion | Elena Irimia | Dan Ştefănescu | Dan Tufiș
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

This article describes the collecting, processing and validation of a large balanced corpus for Romanian. The annotation types and structure of the corpus are briefly reviewed. It was constructed at the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence of the Romanian Academy in the context of an international project (METANET4U). The processing covers tokenization, POS-tagging, lemmatization and chunking. The corpus is in XML format generated by our in-house annotation tools; the corpus encoding schema is XCES compliant and the metadata specification is conformant to the METANET recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large and richly annotated corpus for Romanian. ROMBAC is intended to be the foundation of a linguistic environment containing a reference corpus for contemporary Romanian and a comprehensive collection of interoperable processing tools.


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An Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Textual Unit Alignment
Radu Ion | Alexandru Ceauşu | Elena Irimia
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora: Comparable Corpora and the Web


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Unsupervised Lexical Acquisition for Part of Speech Tagging
Dan Tufiş | Elena Irimia | Radu Ion | Alexandru Ceauşu
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

It is known that POS tagging is not very accurate for unknown words (words which the POS tagger has not seen in the training corpora). Thus, a first step to improve the tagging accuracy would be to extend the coverage of the tagger’s learned lexicon. It turns out that, through the use of a simple procedure, one can extend this lexicon without using additional, hard to obtain, hand-validated training corpora. The basic idea consists of merely adding new words along with their (correct) POS tags to the lexicon and trying to estimate the lexical distribution of these words according to similar ambiguity classes already present in the lexicon. We present a method of automatically acquire high quality POS tagging lexicons based on morphologic analysis and generation. Currently, this procedure works on Romanian for which we have a required paradigmatic generation procedure but the architecture remains general in the sense that given the appropriate substitutes for the morphological generator and POS tagger, one should obtain similar results.


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RoCo-News: A Hand Validated Journalistic Corpus of Romanian
Dan Tufiş | Elena Irimia
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

The paper briefly describes the RoCo project and, in details, one of its first outcomes, the RoCo-News corpus. RoCo-News is a middle-sized journalistic corpus of Romanian, abundant in proper names, numerals and named entities. The initially raw text was previously segmented with MtSeg segmenter, then POS annotated with TNT tagger. RoCo-News was further lemmatized and validated. Because of limited human resources, time constraints and the dimension of the corpus, hand validation of each individual token was out of question. The validation stage required a coherent methodology for automatically identifying as many POS annotation and lemmatization errors as possible. The hand validation process was focused on these automatically spotted possible errors. This methodology relied on three main techniques for automatic detection of potential errors: 1. when lemmatizing the corpus, we extracted all the triples that were not found in the word-form lexicon; 2. we checked the correctness of POS annotation for closed class lexical categories, technique described by (Dickinson & Meurers, 2003); 3. we exploited the hypothesis (Tufiº, 1999) according to which an accurately tagged text, re-tagged with the language model learnt from it (biased evaluation) should have more than 98% tokens identically tagged.