Building systems that can communicate with humans is a core problem in Artificial Intelligence. This work proposes a novel neural network architecture for response selection in an end-to-end multi-turn conversational dialogue setting. The architecture applies context level attention and incorporates additional external knowledge provided by descriptions of domain-specific words. It uses a bi-directional Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) for encoding context and responses and learns to attend over the context words given the latent response representation and vice versa. In addition, it incorporates external domain specific information using another GRU for encoding the domain keyword descriptions. This allows better representation of domain-specific keywords in responses and hence improves the overall performance. Experimental results show that our model outperforms all other state-of-the-art methods for response selection in multi-turn conversations.
The 2017 Fake News Challenge Stage 1 (FNC-1) shared task addressed a stance classification task as a crucial first step towards detecting fake news. To date, there is no in-depth analysis paper to critically discuss FNC-1’s experimental setup, reproduce the results, and draw conclusions for next-generation stance classification methods. In this paper, we provide such an in-depth analysis for the three top-performing systems. We first find that FNC-1’s proposed evaluation metric favors the majority class, which can be easily classified, and thus overestimates the true discriminative power of the methods. Therefore, we propose a new F1-based metric yielding a changed system ranking. Next, we compare the features and architectures used, which leads to a novel feature-rich stacked LSTM model that performs on par with the best systems, but is superior in predicting minority classes. To understand the methods’ ability to generalize, we derive a new dataset and perform both in-domain and cross-domain experiments. Our qualitative and quantitative study helps interpreting the original FNC-1 scores and understand which features help improving performance and why. Our new dataset and all source code used during the reproduction study are publicly available for future research.