Dave Palfrey


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Debiasing knowledge graph embeddings
Joseph Fisher | Arpit Mittal | Dave Palfrey | Christos Christodoulopoulos
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

It has been shown that knowledge graph embeddings encode potentially harmful social biases, such as the information that women are more likely to be nurses, and men more likely to be bankers. As graph embeddings begin to be used more widely in NLP pipelines, there is a need to develop training methods which remove such biases. Previous approaches to this problem both significantly increase the training time, by a factor of eight or more, and decrease the accuracy of the model substantially. We present a novel approach, in which all embeddings are trained to be neutral to sensitive attributes such as gender by default using an adversarial loss. We then add sensitive attributes back on in whitelisted cases. Training time only marginally increases over a baseline model, and the debiased embeddings perform almost as accurately in the triple prediction task as their non-debiased counterparts.


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Using Pairwise Occurrence Information to Improve Knowledge Graph Completion on Large-Scale Datasets
Esma Balkir | Masha Naslidnyk | Dave Palfrey | Arpit Mittal
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Bilinear models such as DistMult and ComplEx are effective methods for knowledge graph (KG) completion. However, they require large batch sizes, which becomes a performance bottleneck when training on large scale datasets due to memory constraints. In this paper we use occurrences of entity-relation pairs in the dataset to construct a joint learning model and to increase the quality of sampled negatives during training. We show on three standard datasets that when these two techniques are combined, they give a significant improvement in performance, especially when the batch size and the number of generated negative examples are low relative to the size of the dataset. We then apply our techniques to a dataset containing 2 million entities and demonstrate that our model outperforms the baseline by 2.8% absolute on hits@1.


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Demand-Weighted Completeness Prediction for a Knowledge Base
Andrew Hopkinson | Amit Gurdasani | Dave Palfrey | Arpit Mittal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 3 (Industry Papers)

In this paper we introduce the notion of Demand-Weighted Completeness, allowing estimation of the completeness of a knowledge base with respect to how it is used. Defining an entity by its classes, we employ usage data to predict the distribution over relations for that entity. For example, instances of person in a knowledge base may require a birth date, name and nationality to be considered complete. These predicted relation distributions enable detection of important gaps in the knowledge base, and define the required facts for unseen entities. Such characterisation of the knowledge base can also quantify how usage and completeness change over time. We demonstrate a method to measure Demand-Weighted Completeness, and show that a simple neural network model performs well at this prediction task.