Dan Parvaz


2010

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Evaluation of Machine Translation Errors in English and Iraqi Arabic
Sherri Condon | Dan Parvaz | John Aberdeen | Christy Doran | Andrew Freeman | Marwan Awad
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

Errors in machine translations of English-Iraqi Arabic dialogues were analyzed at two different points in the systems? development using HTER methods to identify errors and human annotations to refine TER annotations. The analyses were performed on approximately 100 translations into each language from 4 translation systems collected at two annual evaluations. Although the frequencies of errors in the more mature systems were lower, the proportions of error types exhibited little change. Results include high frequencies of pronoun errors in translations to English, high frequencies of subject person inflection in translations to Iraqi Arabic, similar frequencies of word order errors in both translation directions, and very low frequencies of polarity errors. The problems with many errors can be generalized as the need to insert lexemes not present in the source or vice versa, which includes errors in multi-word expressions. Discourse context will be required to resolve some problems with deictic elements like pronouns.

2008

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Applying Automated Metrics to Speech Translation Dialogs
Sherri Condon | Jon Phillips | Christy Doran | John Aberdeen | Dan Parvaz | Beatrice Oshika | Greg Sanders | Craig Schlenoff
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

Over the past five years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has funded development of speech translation systems for tactical applications. A key component of the research program has been extensive system evaluation, with dual objectives of assessing progress overall and comparing among systems. This paper describes the methods used to obtain BLEU, TER, and METEOR scores for two-way English-Iraqi Arabic systems. We compare the scores with measures based on human judgments and demonstrate the effects of normalization operations on BLEU scores. Issues that are highlighted include the quality of test data and differential results of applying automated metrics to Arabic vs. English.

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Performance Evaluation of Speech Translation Systems
Brian Weiss | Craig Schlenoff | Greg Sanders | Michelle Steves | Sherri Condon | Jon Phillips | Dan Parvaz
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

One of the most challenging tasks for uniformed service personnel serving in foreign countries is effective verbal communication with the local population. To remedy this problem, several companies and academic institutions have been funded to develop machine translation systems as part of the DARPA TRANSTAC (Spoken Language Communication and Translation System for Tactical Use) program. The goal of this program is to demonstrate capabilities to rapidly develop and field free-form, two-way translation systems that would enable speakers of different languages to communicate with one another in real-world tactical situations. DARPA has mandated that each TRANSTAC technology be evaluated numerous times throughout the life of the program and has tasked the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to lead this effort. This paper describes the experimental design methodology and test procedures from the most recent evaluation, conducted in July 2007, which focused on English to/from Iraqi Arabic.

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Low-Density Language Bootstrapping: the Case of Tajiki Persian
Karine Megerdoomian | Dan Parvaz
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

Low-density languages raise difficulties for standard approaches to natural language processing that depend on large online corpora. Using Persian as a case study, we propose a novel method for bootstrapping MT capability for a low-density language in the case where it relates to a higher density variant. Tajiki Persian is a low-density language that uses the Cyrillic alphabet, while Iranian Persian (Farsi) is written in an extended version of the Arabic script and has many computational resources available. Despite the orthographic differences, the two languages have literary written forms that are almost identical. The paper describes the development of a comprehensive finite-state transducer that converts Tajik text to Farsi script and runs the resulting transliterated document through an existing Persian-to-English MT system. Due to divergences that arise in mapping the two writing systems and phonological and lexical distinctions, the system uses contextual cues (such as the position of a phoneme in a word) as well as available Farsi resources (such as a morphological analyzer to deal with differences in the affixal structures and a lexicon to disambiguate the analyses) to control the potential combinatorial explosion. The results point to a valuable strategy for the rapid prototyping of MT packages for languages of similar uneven density.