Claudia Schulz


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Biomedical Concept Relatedness – A large EHR-based benchmark
Claudia Schulz | Josh Levy-Kramer | Camille Van Assel | Miklos Kepes | Nils Hammerla
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

A promising application of AI to healthcare is the retrieval of information from electronic health records (EHRs), e.g. to aid clinicians in finding relevant information for a consultation or to recruit suitable patients for a study. This requires search capabilities far beyond simple string matching, including the retrieval of concepts (diagnoses, symptoms, medications, etc.) related to the one in question. The suitability of AI methods for such applications is tested by predicting the relatedness of concepts with known relatedness scores. However, all existing biomedical concept relatedness datasets are notoriously small and consist of hand-picked concept pairs. We open-source a novel concept relatedness benchmark overcoming these issues: it is six times larger than existing datasets and concept pairs are chosen based on co-occurrence in EHRs, ensuring their relevance for the application of interest. We present an in-depth analysis of our new dataset and compare it to existing ones, highlighting that it is not only larger but also complements existing datasets in terms of the types of concepts included. Initial experiments with state-of-the-art embedding methods show that our dataset is a challenging new benchmark for testing concept relatedness models.


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FAMULUS: Interactive Annotation and Feedback Generation for Teaching Diagnostic Reasoning
Jonas Pfeiffer | Christian M. Meyer | Claudia Schulz | Jan Kiesewetter | Jan Zottmann | Michael Sailer | Elisabeth Bauer | Frank Fischer | Martin R. Fischer | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP): System Demonstrations

Our proposed system FAMULUS helps students learn to diagnose based on automatic feedback in virtual patient simulations, and it supports instructors in labeling training data. Diagnosing is an exceptionally difficult skill to obtain but vital for many different professions (e.g., medical doctors, teachers). Previous case simulation systems are limited to multiple-choice questions and thus cannot give constructive individualized feedback on a student’s diagnostic reasoning process. Given initially only limited data, we leverage a (replaceable) NLP model to both support experts in their further data annotation with automatic suggestions, and we provide automatic feedback for students. We argue that because the central model consistently improves, our interactive approach encourages both students and instructors to recurrently use the tool, and thus accelerate the speed of data creation and annotation. We show results from two user studies on diagnostic reasoning in medicine and teacher education and outline how our system can be extended to further use cases.

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A Richly Annotated Corpus for Different Tasks in Automated Fact-Checking
Andreas Hanselowski | Christian Stab | Claudia Schulz | Zile Li | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Automated fact-checking based on machine learning is a promising approach to identify false information distributed on the web. In order to achieve satisfactory performance, machine learning methods require a large corpus with reliable annotations for the different tasks in the fact-checking process. Having analyzed existing fact-checking corpora, we found that none of them meets these criteria in full. They are either too small in size, do not provide detailed annotations, or are limited to a single domain. Motivated by this gap, we present a new substantially sized mixed-domain corpus with annotations of good quality for the core fact-checking tasks: document retrieval, evidence extraction, stance detection, and claim validation. To aid future corpus construction, we describe our methodology for corpus creation and annotation, and demonstrate that it results in substantial inter-annotator agreement. As baselines for future research, we perform experiments on our corpus with a number of model architectures that reach high performance in similar problem settings. Finally, to support the development of future models, we provide a detailed error analysis for each of the tasks. Our results show that the realistic, multi-domain setting defined by our data poses new challenges for the existing models, providing opportunities for considerable improvement by future systems.

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Analysis of Automatic Annotation Suggestions for Hard Discourse-Level Tasks in Expert Domains
Claudia Schulz | Christian M. Meyer | Jan Kiesewetter | Michael Sailer | Elisabeth Bauer | Martin R. Fischer | Frank Fischer | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Many complex discourse-level tasks can aid domain experts in their work but require costly expert annotations for data creation. To speed up and ease annotations, we investigate the viability of automatically generated annotation suggestions for such tasks. As an example, we choose a task that is particularly hard for both humans and machines: the segmentation and classification of epistemic activities in diagnostic reasoning texts. We create and publish a new dataset covering two domains and carefully analyse the suggested annotations. We find that suggestions have positive effects on annotation speed and performance, while not introducing noteworthy biases. Envisioning suggestion models that improve with newly annotated texts, we contrast methods for continuous model adjustment and suggest the most effective setup for suggestions in future expert tasks.

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Text Processing Like Humans Do: Visually Attacking and Shielding NLP Systems
Steffen Eger | Gözde Gül Şahin | Andreas Rücklé | Ji-Ung Lee | Claudia Schulz | Mohsen Mesgar | Krishnkant Swarnkar | Edwin Simpson | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Visual modifications to text are often used to obfuscate offensive comments in social media (e.g., “!d10t”) or as a writing style (“1337” in “leet speak”), among other scenarios. We consider this as a new type of adversarial attack in NLP, a setting to which humans are very robust, as our experiments with both simple and more difficult visual perturbations demonstrate. We investigate the impact of visual adversarial attacks on current NLP systems on character-, word-, and sentence-level tasks, showing that both neural and non-neural models are, in contrast to humans, extremely sensitive to such attacks, suffering performance decreases of up to 82%. We then explore three shielding methods—visual character embeddings, adversarial training, and rule-based recovery—which substantially improve the robustness of the models. However, the shielding methods still fall behind performances achieved in non-attack scenarios, which demonstrates the difficulty of dealing with visual attacks.


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Multi-Task Learning for Argumentation Mining in Low-Resource Settings
Claudia Schulz | Steffen Eger | Johannes Daxenberger | Tobias Kahse | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

We investigate whether and where multi-task learning (MTL) can improve performance on NLP problems related to argumentation mining (AM), in particular argument component identification. Our results show that MTL performs particularly well (and better than single-task learning) when little training data is available for the main task, a common scenario in AM. Our findings challenge previous assumptions that conceptualizations across AM datasets are divergent and that MTL is difficult for semantic or higher-level tasks.

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UKP-Athene: Multi-Sentence Textual Entailment for Claim Verification
Andreas Hanselowski | Hao Zhang | Zile Li | Daniil Sorokin | Benjamin Schiller | Claudia Schulz | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

The Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER) shared task was launched to support the development of systems able to verify claims by extracting supporting or refuting facts from raw text. The shared task organizers provide a large-scale dataset for the consecutive steps involved in claim verification, in particular, document retrieval, fact extraction, and claim classification. In this paper, we present our claim verification pipeline approach, which, according to the preliminary results, scored third in the shared task, out of 23 competing systems. For the document retrieval, we implemented a new entity linking approach. In order to be able to rank candidate facts and classify a claim on the basis of several selected facts, we introduce two extensions to the Enhanced LSTM (ESIM).


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Assessing Convincingness of Arguments in Online Debates with Limited Number of Features
Lisa Andreevna Chalaguine | Claudia Schulz
Proceedings of the Student Research Workshop at the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose a new method in the field of argument analysis in social media to determining convincingness of arguments in online debates, following previous research by Habernal and Gurevych (2016). Rather than using argument specific feature values, we measure feature values relative to the average value in the debate, allowing us to determine argument convincingness with fewer features (between 5 and 35) than normally used for natural language processing tasks. We use a simple forward-feeding neural network for this task and achieve an accuracy of 0.77 which is comparable to the accuracy obtained using 64k features and a support vector machine by Habernal and Gurevych.