Claudia Borg


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Creating Expert Knowledge by Relying on Language Learners: a Generic Approach for Mass-Producing Language Resources by Combining Implicit Crowdsourcing and Language Learning
Lionel Nicolas | Verena Lyding | Claudia Borg | Corina Forascu | Karën Fort | Katerina Zdravkova | Iztok Kosem | Jaka Čibej | Špela Arhar Holdt | Alice Millour | Alexander König | Christos Rodosthenous | Federico Sangati | Umair ul Hassan | Anisia Katinskaia | Anabela Barreiro | Lavinia Aparaschivei | Yaakov HaCohen-Kerner
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We introduce in this paper a generic approach to combine implicit crowdsourcing and language learning in order to mass-produce language resources (LRs) for any language for which a crowd of language learners can be involved. We present the approach by explaining its core paradigm that consists in pairing specific types of LRs with specific exercises, by detailing both its strengths and challenges, and by discussing how much these challenges have been addressed at present. Accordingly, we also report on on-going proof-of-concept efforts aiming at developing the first prototypical implementation of the approach in order to correct and extend an LR called ConceptNet based on the input crowdsourced from language learners. We then present an international network called the European Network for Combining Language Learning with Crowdsourcing Techniques (enetCollect) that provides the context to accelerate the implementation of this generic approach. Finally, we exemplify how it can be used in several language learning scenarios to produce a multitude of NLP resources and how it can therefore alleviate the long-standing NLP issue of the lack of LRs.

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MASRI-HEADSET: A Maltese Corpus for Speech Recognition
Carlos Daniel Hernandez Mena | Albert Gatt | Andrea DeMarco | Claudia Borg | Lonneke van der Plas | Amanda Muscat | Ian Padovani
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Maltese, the national language of Malta, is spoken by approximately 500,000 people. Speech processing for Maltese is still in its early stages of development. In this paper, we present the first spoken Maltese corpus designed purposely for Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). The MASRI-HEADSET corpus was developed by the MASRI project at the University of Malta. It consists of 8 hours of speech paired with text, recorded by using short text snippets in a laboratory environment. The speakers were recruited from different geographical locations all over the Maltese islands, and were roughly evenly distributed by gender. This paper also presents some initial results achieved in baseline experiments for Maltese ASR using Sphinx and Kaldi. The MASRI HEADSET Corpus is publicly available for research/academic purposes.


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CUNIMalta system at SIGMORPHON 2019 Shared Task on Morphological Analysis and Lemmatization in context: Operation-based word formation
Ronald Cardenas | Claudia Borg | Daniel Zeman
Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology

This paper presents the submission by the Charles University-University of Malta team to the SIGMORPHON 2019 Shared Task on Morphological Analysis and Lemmatization in context. We present a lemmatization model based on previous work on neural transducers (Makarov and Clematide, 2018b; Aharoni and Goldberg, 2016). The key difference is that our model transforms the whole word form in every step, instead of consuming it character by character. We propose a merging strategy inspired by Byte-Pair-Encoding that reduces the space of valid operations by merging frequent adjacent operations. The resulting operations not only encode the actions to be performed but the relative position in the word token and how characters need to be transformed. Our morphological tagger is a vanilla biLSTM tagger that operates over operation representations, encoding operations and words in a hierarchical manner. Even though relative performance according to metrics is below the baseline, experiments show that our models capture important associations between interpretable operation labels and fine-grained morpho-syntax labels.


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Face2Text: Collecting an Annotated Image Description Corpus for the Generation of Rich Face Descriptions
Albert Gatt | Marc Tanti | Adrian Muscat | Patrizia Paggio | Reuben A Farrugia | Claudia Borg | Kenneth P Camilleri | Michael Rosner | Lonneke van der Plas
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


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Morphological Analysis for the Maltese Language: The challenges of a hybrid system
Claudia Borg | Albert Gatt
Proceedings of the Third Arabic Natural Language Processing Workshop

Maltese is a morphologically rich language with a hybrid morphological system which features both concatenative and non-concatenative processes. This paper analyses the impact of this hybridity on the performance of machine learning techniques for morphological labelling and clustering. In particular, we analyse a dataset of morphologically related word clusters to evaluate the difference in results for concatenative and non-concatenative clusters. We also describe research carried out in morphological labelling, with a particular focus on the verb category. Two evaluations were carried out, one using an unseen dataset, and another one using a gold standard dataset which was manually labelled. The gold standard dataset was split into concatenative and non-concatenative to analyse the difference in results between the two morphological systems.


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Crowd-sourcing evaluation of automatically acquired, morphologically related word groupings
Claudia Borg | Albert Gatt
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

The automatic discovery and clustering of morphologically related words is an important problem with several practical applications. This paper describes the evaluation of word clusters carried out through crowd-sourcing techniques for the Maltese language. The hybrid (Semitic-Romance) nature of Maltese morphology, together with the fact that no large-scale lexical resources are available for Maltese, make this an interesting and challenging problem.


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Automatic Grammar Rule Extraction and Ranking for Definitions
Claudia Borg | Mike Rosner | Gordon J. Pace
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

Plain text corpora contain much information which can only be accessed through human annotation and semantic analysis, which is typically very time consuming to perform. Analysis of such texts at a syntactic or grammatical structure level can however extract some of this information in an automated manner, even if identifying effective rules can be extremely difficult. One such type of implicit information present in texts is that of definitional phrases and sentences. In this paper, we investigate the use of evolutionary algorithms to learn classifiers to discriminate between definitional and non-definitional sentences in non-technical texts, and show how effective grammar-based definition discriminators can be automatically learnt with minor human intervention.


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Evolutionary Algorithms for Definition Extraction
Claudia Borg | Mike Rosner | Gordon Pace
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Definition Extraction