Chris Tar


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Multilingual Universal Sentence Encoder for Semantic Retrieval
Yinfei Yang | Daniel Cer | Amin Ahmad | Mandy Guo | Jax Law | Noah Constant | Gustavo Hernandez Abrego | Steve Yuan | Chris Tar | Yun-hsuan Sung | Brian Strope | Ray Kurzweil
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We present easy-to-use retrieval focused multilingual sentence embedding models, made available on TensorFlow Hub. The models embed text from 16 languages into a shared semantic space using a multi-task trained dual-encoder that learns tied cross-lingual representations via translation bridge tasks (Chidambaram et al., 2018). The models achieve a new state-of-the-art in performance on monolingual and cross-lingual semantic retrieval (SR). Competitive performance is obtained on the related tasks of translation pair bitext retrieval (BR) and retrieval question answering (ReQA). On transfer learning tasks, our multilingual embeddings approach, and in some cases exceed, the performance of English only sentence embeddings.


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PAWS-X: A Cross-lingual Adversarial Dataset for Paraphrase Identification
Yinfei Yang | Yuan Zhang | Chris Tar | Jason Baldridge
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Most existing work on adversarial data generation focuses on English. For example, PAWS (Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling) consists of challenging English paraphrase identification pairs from Wikipedia and Quora. We remedy this gap with PAWS-X, a new dataset of 23,659 human translated PAWS evaluation pairs in six typologically distinct languages: French, Spanish, German, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. We provide baseline numbers for three models with different capacity to capture non-local context and sentence structure, and using different multilingual training and evaluation regimes. Multilingual BERT fine-tuned on PAWS English plus machine-translated data performs the best, with a range of 83.1-90.8 accuracy across the non-English languages and an average accuracy gain of 23% over the next best model. PAWS-X shows the effectiveness of deep, multilingual pre-training while also leaving considerable headroom as a new challenge to drive multilingual research that better captures structure and contextual information.

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Predicting Annotation Difficulty to Improve Task Routing and Model Performance for Biomedical Information Extraction
Yinfei Yang | Oshin Agarwal | Chris Tar | Byron C. Wallace | Ani Nenkova
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Modern NLP systems require high-quality annotated data. For specialized domains, expert annotations may be prohibitively expensive; the alternative is to rely on crowdsourcing to reduce costs at the risk of introducing noise. In this paper we demonstrate that directly modeling instance difficulty can be used to improve model performance and to route instances to appropriate annotators. Our difficulty prediction model combines two learned representations: a ‘universal’ encoder trained on out of domain data, and a task-specific encoder. Experiments on a complex biomedical information extraction task using expert and lay annotators show that: (i) simply excluding from the training data instances predicted to be difficult yields a small boost in performance; (ii) using difficulty scores to weight instances during training provides further, consistent gains; (iii) assigning instances predicted to be difficult to domain experts is an effective strategy for task routing. Further, our experiments confirm the expectation that for such domain-specific tasks expert annotations are of much higher quality and preferable to obtain if practical and that augmenting small amounts of expert data with a larger set of lay annotations leads to further improvements in model performance.


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Universal Sentence Encoder for English
Daniel Cer | Yinfei Yang | Sheng-yi Kong | Nan Hua | Nicole Limtiaco | Rhomni St. John | Noah Constant | Mario Guajardo-Cespedes | Steve Yuan | Chris Tar | Brian Strope | Ray Kurzweil
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We present easy-to-use TensorFlow Hub sentence embedding models having good task transfer performance. Model variants allow for trade-offs between accuracy and compute resources. We report the relationship between model complexity, resources, and transfer performance. Comparisons are made with baselines without transfer learning and to baselines that incorporate word-level transfer. Transfer learning using sentence-level embeddings is shown to outperform models without transfer learning and often those that use only word-level transfer. We show good transfer task performance with minimal training data and obtain encouraging results on word embedding association tests (WEAT) of model bias.