Many multi-domain neural machine translation (NMT) models achieve knowledge transfer by enforcing one encoder to learn shared embedding across domains. However, this design lacks adaptation to individual domains. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel multi-domain NMT model using individual modules for each domain, on which we apply word-level, adaptive and layer-wise domain mixing. We first observe that words in a sentence are often related to multiple domains. Hence, we assume each word has a domain proportion, which indicates its domain preference. Then word representations are obtained by mixing their embedding in individual domains based on their domain proportions. We show this can be achieved by carefully designing multi-head dot-product attention modules for different domains, and eventually taking weighted averages of their parameters by word-level layer-wise domain proportions. Through this, we can achieve effective domain knowledge sharing and capture fine-grained domain-specific knowledge as well. Our experiments show that our proposed model outperforms existing ones in several NMT tasks.
Developing agents to engage in complex goal-oriented dialogues is challenging partly because the main learning signals are very sparse in long conversations. In this paper, we propose a divide-and-conquer approach that discovers and exploits the hidden structure of the task to enable efficient policy learning. First, given successful example dialogues, we propose the Subgoal Discovery Network (SDN) to divide a complex goal-oriented task into a set of simpler subgoals in an unsupervised fashion. We then use these subgoals to learn a multi-level policy by hierarchical reinforcement learning. We demonstrate our method by building a dialogue agent for the composite task of travel planning. Experiments with simulated and real users show that our approach performs competitively against a state-of-the-art method that requires human-defined subgoals. Moreover, we show that the learned subgoals are often human comprehensible.
We present a probabilistic language model that captures temporal dynamics and conditions on arbitrary non-linguistic context features. These context features serve as important indicators of language changes that are otherwise difficult to capture using text data by itself. We learn our model in an efficient online fashion that is scalable for large, streaming data. With five streaming datasets from two different genres—economics news articles and social media—we evaluate our model on the task of sequential language modeling. Our model consistently outperforms competing models.