Changliang Li


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Does Multi-Encoder Help? A Case Study on Context-Aware Neural Machine Translation
Bei Li | Hui Liu | Ziyang Wang | Yufan Jiang | Tong Xiao | Jingbo Zhu | Tongran Liu | Changliang Li
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In encoder-decoder neural models, multiple encoders are in general used to represent the contextual information in addition to the individual sentence. In this paper, we investigate multi-encoder approaches in document-level neural machine translation (NMT). Surprisingly, we find that the context encoder does not only encode the surrounding sentences but also behaves as a noise generator. This makes us rethink the real benefits of multi-encoder in context-aware translation - some of the improvements come from robust training. We compare several methods that introduce noise and/or well-tuned dropout setup into the training of these encoders. Experimental results show that noisy training plays an important role in multi-encoder-based NMT, especially when the training data is small. Also, we establish a new state-of-the-art on IWSLT Fr-En task by careful use of noise generation and dropout methods.

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Learning Architectures from an Extended Search Space for Language Modeling
Yinqiao Li | Chi Hu | Yuhao Zhang | Nuo Xu | Yufan Jiang | Tong Xiao | Jingbo Zhu | Tongran Liu | Changliang Li
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Neural architecture search (NAS) has advanced significantly in recent years but most NAS systems restrict search to learning architectures of a recurrent or convolutional cell. In this paper, we extend the search space of NAS. In particular, we present a general approach to learn both intra-cell and inter-cell architectures (call it ESS). For a better search result, we design a joint learning method to perform intra-cell and inter-cell NAS simultaneously. We implement our model in a differentiable architecture search system. For recurrent neural language modeling, it outperforms a strong baseline significantly on the PTB and WikiText data, with a new state-of-the-art on PTB. Moreover, the learned architectures show good transferability to other systems. E.g., they improve state-of-the-art systems on the CoNLL and WNUT named entity recognition (NER) tasks and CoNLL chunking task, indicating a promising line of research on large-scale pre-learned architectures.

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Layer-Wise Multi-View Learning for Neural Machine Translation
Qiang Wang | Changliang Li | Yue Zhang | Tong Xiao | Jingbo Zhu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Traditional neural machine translation is limited to the topmost encoder layer’s context representation and cannot directly perceive the lower encoder layers. Existing solutions usually rely on the adjustment of network architecture, making the calculation more complicated or introducing additional structural restrictions. In this work, we propose layer-wise multi-view learning to solve this problem, circumventing the necessity to change the model structure. We regard each encoder layer’s off-the-shelf output, a by-product in layer-by-layer encoding, as the redundant view for the input sentence. In this way, in addition to the topmost encoder layer (referred to as the primary view), we also incorporate an intermediate encoder layer as the auxiliary view. We feed the two views to a partially shared decoder to maintain independent prediction. Consistency regularization based on KL divergence is used to encourage the two views to learn from each other. Extensive experimental results on five translation tasks show that our approach yields stable improvements over multiple strong baselines. As another bonus, our method is agnostic to network architectures and can maintain the same inference speed as the original model.


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Learning Deep Transformer Models for Machine Translation
Qiang Wang | Bei Li | Tong Xiao | Jingbo Zhu | Changliang Li | Derek F. Wong | Lidia S. Chao
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Transformer is the state-of-the-art model in recent machine translation evaluations. Two strands of research are promising to improve models of this kind: the first uses wide networks (a.k.a. Transformer-Big) and has been the de facto standard for development of the Transformer system, and the other uses deeper language representation but faces the difficulty arising from learning deep networks. Here, we continue the line of research on the latter. We claim that a truly deep Transformer model can surpass the Transformer-Big counterpart by 1) proper use of layer normalization and 2) a novel way of passing the combination of previous layers to the next. On WMT’16 English-German and NIST OpenMT’12 Chinese-English tasks, our deep system (30/25-layer encoder) outperforms the shallow Transformer-Big/Base baseline (6-layer encoder) by 0.4-2.4 BLEU points. As another bonus, the deep model is 1.6X smaller in size and 3X faster in training than Transformer-Big.

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STAC: Science Toolkit Based on Chinese Idiom Knowledge Graph
Meiling Wang | Min Xiao | Changliang Li | Yu Guo | Zhixin Zhao | Xiaonan Liu
Proceedings of the Workshop on Extracting Structured Knowledge from Scientific Publications

Chinese idioms (Cheng Yu) have seen five thousand years’ history and culture of China, meanwhile they contain large number of scientific achievement of ancient China. However, existing Chinese online idiom dictionaries have limited function for scientific exploration. In this paper, we first construct a Chinese idiom knowledge graph by extracting domains and dynasties and associating them with idioms, and based on the idiom knowledge graph, we propose a Science Toolkit for Ancient China (STAC) aiming to support scientific exploration. In the STAC toolkit, idiom navigator helps users explore overall scientific progress from idiom perspective with visualization tools, and idiom card and idiom QA shorten action path and avoid thinking being interrupted while users are reading and writing. The current STAC toolkit is deployed at

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Kingsoft’s Neural Machine Translation System for WMT19
Xinze Guo | Chang Liu | Xiaolong Li | Yiran Wang | Guoliang Li | Feng Wang | Zhitao Xu | Liuyi Yang | Li Ma | Changliang Li
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

This paper describes the Kingsoft AI Lab’s submission to the WMT2019 news translation shared task. We participated in two language directions: English-Chinese and Chinese-English. For both language directions, we trained several variants of Transformer models using the provided parallel data enlarged with a large quantity of back-translated monolingual data. The best translation result was obtained with ensemble and reranking techniques. According to automatic metrics (BLEU) our Chinese-English system reached the second highest score, and our English-Chinese system reached the second highest score for this subtask.

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Step-wise Refinement Classification Approach for Enterprise Legal Litigation
Ying Mao | Xian Wang | Jianbo Tang | Changliang Li
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Financial Technology and Natural Language Processing


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A Self-Attentive Model with Gate Mechanism for Spoken Language Understanding
Changliang Li | Liang Li | Ji Qi
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Spoken Language Understanding (SLU), which typically involves intent determination and slot filling, is a core component of spoken dialogue systems. Joint learning has shown to be effective in SLU given that slot tags and intents are supposed to share knowledge with each other. However, most existing joint learning methods only consider joint learning by sharing parameters on surface level rather than semantic level. In this work, we propose a novel self-attentive model with gate mechanism to fully utilize the semantic correlation between slot and intent. Our model first obtains intent-augmented embeddings based on neural network with self-attention mechanism. And then the intent semantic representation is utilized as the gate for labelling slot tags. The objectives of both tasks are optimized simultaneously via joint learning in an end-to-end way. We conduct experiment on popular benchmark ATIS. The results show that our model achieves state-of-the-art and outperforms other popular methods by a large margin in terms of both intent detection error rate and slot filling F1-score. This paper gives a new perspective for research on SLU.

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Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis Based on Policy Gradient LSTM Model
Changliang Li | Ji Qi
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications

Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis (CGED) is a natural language processing task for the NLPTEA2018 workshop held during ACL2018. The goal of this task is to diagnose Chinese sentences containing four kinds of grammatical errors through the model and find out the sentence errors. Chinese grammatical error diagnosis system is a very important tool, which can help Chinese learners automatically diagnose grammatical errors in many scenarios. However, due to the limitations of the Chinese language’s own characteristics and datasets, the traditional model faces the problem of extreme imbalances in the positive and negative samples and the disappearance of gradients. In this paper, we propose a sequence labeling method based on the Policy Gradient LSTM model and apply it to this task to solve the above problems. The results show that our model can achieve higher precision scores in the case of lower False positive rate (FPR) and it is convenient to optimize the model on-line.


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Building Large Chinese Corpus for Spoken Dialogue Research in Specific Domains
Changliang Li | Xiuying Wang
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Corpus is a valuable resource for information retrieval and data-driven natural language processing systems,especially for spoken dialogue research in specific domains. However,there is little non-English corpora, particular for ones in Chinese. Spoken by the nation with the largest population in the world, Chinese become increasingly prevalent and popular among millions of people worldwide. In this paper, we build a large-scale and high-quality Chinese corpus, called CSDC (Chinese Spoken Dialogue Corpus). It contains five domains and more than 140 thousand dialogues in all. Each sentence in this corpus is annotated with slot information additionally compared to other corpora. To our best knowledge, this is the largest Chinese spoken dialogue corpus, as well as the first one with slot information. With this corpus, we proposed a method and did a well-designed experiment. The indicative result is reported at last.

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ALS at IJCNLP-2017 Task 5: Answer Localization System for Multi-Choice Question Answering in Exams
Changliang Li | Cunliang Kong
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, Shared Tasks

Multi-choice question answering in exams is a typical QA task. To accomplish this task, we present an answer localization method to locate answers shown in web pages, considering structural information and semantic information both. Using this method as basis, we analyze sentences and paragraphs appeared on web pages to get predictions. With this answer localization system, we get effective results on both validation dataset and test dataset.