Predicting Ratings of Real Dialogue Participants from Artificial Data and Ratings of Human Dialogue Observers
Kallirroi Georgila | Carla Gordon | Volodymyr Yanov | David Traum
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference
We collected a corpus of dialogues in a Wizard of Oz (WOz) setting in the Internet of Things (IoT) domain. We asked users participating in these dialogues to rate the system on a number of aspects, namely, intelligence, naturalness, personality, friendliness, their enjoyment, overall quality, and whether they would recommend the system to others. Then we asked dialogue observers, i.e., Amazon Mechanical Turkers (MTurkers), to rate these dialogues on the same aspects. We also generated simulated dialogues between dialogue policies and simulated users and asked MTurkers to rate them again on the same aspects. Using linear regression, we developed dialogue evaluation functions based on features from the simulated dialogues and the MTurkers’ ratings, the WOz dialogues and the MTurkers’ ratings, and the WOz dialogues and the WOz participants’ ratings. We applied all these dialogue evaluation functions to a held-out portion of our WOz dialogues, and we report results on the predictive power of these different types of dialogue evaluation functions. Our results suggest that for three conversational aspects (intelligence, naturalness, overall quality) just training evaluation functions on simulated data could be sufficient.