Calbert Graham


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Crowdsourcing a Multi-lingual Speech Corpus: Recording, Transcription and Annotation of the CrowdIS Corpora
Andrew Caines | Christian Bentz | Calbert Graham | Tim Polzehl | Paula Buttery
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

We announce the release of the CROWDED CORPUS: a pair of speech corpora collected via crowdsourcing, containing a native speaker corpus of English (CROWDED_ENGLISH), and a corpus of German/English bilinguals (CROWDED_BILINGUAL). Release 1 of the CROWDED CORPUS contains 1000 recordings amounting to 33,400 tokens collected from 80 speakers and is freely available to other researchers. We recruited participants via the Crowdee application for Android. Recruits were prompted to respond to business-topic questions of the type found in language learning oral tests. We then used the CrowdFlower web application to pass these recordings to crowdworkers for transcription and annotation of errors and sentence boundaries. Finally, the sentences were tagged and parsed using standard natural language processing tools. We propose that crowdsourcing is a valid and economical method for corpus collection, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach.

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Automated speech-unit delimitation in spoken learner English
Russell Moore | Andrew Caines | Calbert Graham | Paula Buttery
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

In order to apply computational linguistic analyses and pass information to downstream applications, transcriptions of speech obtained via automatic speech recognition (ASR) need to be divided into smaller meaningful units, in a task we refer to as ‘speech-unit (SU) delimitation’. We closely recreate the automatic delimitation system described by Lee and Glass (2012), ‘Sentence detection using multiple annotations’, Proceedings of INTERSPEECH, which combines a prosodic model, language model and speech-unit length model in log-linear fashion. Since state-of-the-art natural language processing (NLP) tools have been developed to deal with written text and its characteristic sentence-like units, SU delimitation helps bridge the gap between ASR and NLP, by normalising spoken data into a more canonical format. Previous work has focused on native speaker recordings; we test the system of Lee and Glass (2012) on non-native speaker (or ‘learner’) data, achieving performance above the state-of-the-art. We also consider alternative evaluation metrics which move away from the idea of a single ‘truth’ in SU delimitation, and frame this work in the context of downstream NLP applications.