Benjamin Heinzerling


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When Choosing Plausible Alternatives, Clever Hans can be Clever
Pride Kavumba | Naoya Inoue | Benjamin Heinzerling | Keshav Singh | Paul Reisert | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Commonsense Inference in Natural Language Processing

Pretrained language models, such as BERT and RoBERTa, have shown large improvements in the commonsense reasoning benchmark COPA. However, recent work found that many improvements in benchmarks of natural language understanding are not due to models learning the task, but due to their increasing ability to exploit superficial cues, such as tokens that occur more often in the correct answer than the wrong one. Are BERT’s and RoBERTa’s good performance on COPA also caused by this? We find superficial cues in COPA, as well as evidence that BERT exploits these cues.To remedy this problem, we introduce Balanced COPA, an extension of COPA that does not suffer from easy-to-exploit single token cues. We analyze BERT’s and RoBERTa’s performance on original and Balanced COPA, finding that BERT relies on superficial cues when they are present, but still achieves comparable performance once they are made ineffective, suggesting that BERT learns the task to a certain degree when forced to. In contrast, RoBERTa does not appear to rely on superficial cues.

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On the Importance of Subword Information for Morphological Tasks in Truly Low-Resource Languages
Yi Zhu | Benjamin Heinzerling | Ivan Vulić | Michael Strube | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Recent work has validated the importance of subword information for word representation learning. Since subwords increase parameter sharing ability in neural models, their value should be even more pronounced in low-data regimes. In this work, we therefore provide a comprehensive analysis focused on the usefulness of subwords for word representation learning in truly low-resource scenarios and for three representative morphological tasks: fine-grained entity typing, morphological tagging, and named entity recognition. We conduct a systematic study that spans several dimensions of comparison: 1) type of data scarcity which can stem from the lack of task-specific training data, or even from the lack of unannotated data required to train word embeddings, or both; 2) language type by working with a sample of 16 typologically diverse languages including some truly low-resource ones (e.g. Rusyn, Buryat, and Zulu); 3) the choice of the subword-informed word representation method. Our main results show that subword-informed models are universally useful across all language types, with large gains over subword-agnostic embeddings. They also suggest that the effective use of subwords largely depends on the language (type) and the task at hand, as well as on the amount of available data for training the embeddings and task-based models, where having sufficient in-task data is a more critical requirement.

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Sequence Tagging with Contextual and Non-Contextual Subword Representations: A Multilingual Evaluation
Benjamin Heinzerling | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Pretrained contextual and non-contextual subword embeddings have become available in over 250 languages, allowing massively multilingual NLP. However, while there is no dearth of pretrained embeddings, the distinct lack of systematic evaluations makes it difficult for practitioners to choose between them. In this work, we conduct an extensive evaluation comparing non-contextual subword embeddings, namely FastText and BPEmb, and a contextual representation method, namely BERT, on multilingual named entity recognition and part-of-speech tagging. We find that overall, a combination of BERT, BPEmb, and character representations works best across languages and tasks. A more detailed analysis reveals different strengths and weaknesses: Multilingual BERT performs well in medium- to high-resource languages, but is outperformed by non-contextual subword embeddings in a low-resource setting.

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Fine-Grained Entity Typing in Hyperbolic Space
Federico López | Benjamin Heinzerling | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2019)

How can we represent hierarchical information present in large type inventories for entity typing? We study the suitability of hyperbolic embeddings to capture hierarchical relations between mentions in context and their target types in a shared vector space. We evaluate on two datasets and propose two different techniques to extract hierarchical information from the type inventory: from an expert-generated ontology and by automatically mining the dataset. The hyperbolic model shows improvements in some but not all cases over its Euclidean counterpart. Our analysis suggests that the adequacy of this geometry depends on the granularity of the type inventory and the representation of its distribution.


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BPEmb: Tokenization-free Pre-trained Subword Embeddings in 275 Languages
Benjamin Heinzerling | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


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Trust, but Verify! Better Entity Linking through Automatic Verification
Benjamin Heinzerling | Michael Strube | Chin-Yew Lin
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

We introduce automatic verification as a post-processing step for entity linking (EL). The proposed method trusts EL system results collectively, by assuming entity mentions are mostly linked correctly, in order to create a semantic profile of the given text using geospatial and temporal information, as well as fine-grained entity types. This profile is then used to automatically verify each linked mention individually, i.e., to predict whether it has been linked correctly or not. Verification allows leveraging a rich set of global and pairwise features that would be prohibitively expensive for EL systems employing global inference. Evaluation shows consistent improvements across datasets and systems. In particular, when applied to state-of-the-art systems, our method yields an absolute improvement in linking performance of up to 1.7 F1 on AIDA/CoNLL’03 and up to 2.4 F1 on the English TAC KBP 2015 TEDL dataset.

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Revisiting Selectional Preferences for Coreference Resolution
Benjamin Heinzerling | Nafise Sadat Moosavi | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Selectional preferences have long been claimed to be essential for coreference resolution. However, they are modeled only implicitly by current coreference resolvers. We propose a dependency-based embedding model of selectional preferences which allows fine-grained compatibility judgments with high coverage. Incorporating our model improves performance, matching state-of-the-art results of a more complex system. However, it comes with a cost that makes it debatable how worthwhile are such improvements.


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Visual Error Analysis for Entity Linking
Benjamin Heinzerling | Michael Strube
Proceedings of ACL-IJCNLP 2015 System Demonstrations