Anthony Rios


2020

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Quantifying 60 Years of Gender Bias in Biomedical Research with Word Embeddings
Anthony Rios | Reenam Joshi | Hejin Shin
Proceedings of the 19th SIGBioMed Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

Gender bias in biomedical research can have an adverse impact on the health of real people. For example, there is evidence that heart disease-related funded research generally focuses on men. Health disparities can form between men and at-risk groups of women (i.e., elderly and low-income) if there is not an equal number of heart disease-related studies for both genders. In this paper, we study temporal bias in biomedical research articles by measuring gender differences in word embeddings. Specifically, we address multiple questions, including, How has gender bias changed over time in biomedical research, and what health-related concepts are the most biased? Overall, we find that traditional gender stereotypes have reduced over time. However, we also find that the embeddings of many medical conditions are as biased today as they were 60 years ago (e.g., concepts related to drug addiction and body dysmorphia).

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An Empirical Study of the Downstream Reliability of Pre-Trained Word Embeddings
Anthony Rios | Brandon Lwowski
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

While pre-trained word embeddings have been shown to improve the performance of downstream tasks, many questions remain regarding their reliability: Do the same pre-trained word embeddings result in the best performance with slight changes to the training data? Do the same pre-trained embeddings perform well with multiple neural network architectures? Do imputation strategies for unknown words impact reliability? In this paper, we introduce two new metrics to understand the downstream reliability of word embeddings. We find that downstream reliability of word embeddings depends on multiple factors, including, the evaluation metric, the handling of out-of-vocabulary words, and whether the embeddings are fine-tuned.

2019

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How Many Users Are Enough? Exploring Semi-Supervision and Stylometric Features to Uncover a Russian Troll Farm
Nayeema Nasrin | Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo | Myung Ko | Anthony Rios
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda

Social media has reportedly been (ab)used by Russian troll farms to promote political agendas. Specifically, state-affiliated actors disguise themselves as native citizens of the United States to promote discord and promote their political motives. Therefore, developing methods to automatically detect Russian trolls can ensure fair elections and possibly reduce political extremism by stopping trolls that produce discord. While data exists for some troll organizations (e.g., Internet Research Agency), it is challenging to collect ground-truth accounts for new troll farms in a timely fashion. In this paper, we study the impact the number of labeled troll accounts has on detection performance. We analyze the use of self-supervision with less than 100 troll accounts as training data. We improve classification performance by nearly 4% F1. Furthermore, in combination with self-supervision, we also explore novel features for troll detection grounded in stylometry. Intuitively, we assume that the writing style is consistent across troll accounts because a single troll organization employee may control multiple user accounts. Overall, we improve on models based on words features by ~9% F1.

2018

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EMR Coding with Semi-Parametric Multi-Head Matching Networks
Anthony Rios | Ramakanth Kavuluru
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Coding EMRs with diagnosis and procedure codes is an indispensable task for billing, secondary data analyses, and monitoring health trends. Both speed and accuracy of coding are critical. While coding errors could lead to more patient-side financial burden and misinterpretation of a patient’s well-being, timely coding is also needed to avoid backlogs and additional costs for the healthcare facility. In this paper, we present a new neural network architecture that combines ideas from few-shot learning matching networks, multi-label loss functions, and convolutional neural networks for text classification to significantly outperform other state-of-the-art models. Our evaluations are conducted using a well known de-identified EMR dataset (MIMIC) with a variety of multi-label performance measures.

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Few-Shot and Zero-Shot Multi-Label Learning for Structured Label Spaces
Anthony Rios | Ramakanth Kavuluru
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large multi-label datasets contain labels that occur thousands of times (frequent group), those that occur only a few times (few-shot group), and labels that never appear in the training dataset (zero-shot group). Multi-label few- and zero-shot label prediction is mostly unexplored on datasets with large label spaces, especially for text classification. In this paper, we perform a fine-grained evaluation to understand how state-of-the-art methods perform on infrequent labels. Furthermore, we develop few- and zero-shot methods for multi-label text classification when there is a known structure over the label space, and evaluate them on two publicly available medical text datasets: MIMIC II and MIMIC III. For few-shot labels we achieve improvements of 6.2% and 4.8% in R@10 for MIMIC II and MIMIC III, respectively, over prior efforts; the corresponding R@10 improvements for zero-shot labels are 17.3% and 19%.

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Predicting Psychological Health from Childhood Essays with Convolutional Neural Networks for the CLPsych 2018 Shared Task (Team UKNLP)
Anthony Rios | Tung Tran | Ramakanth Kavuluru
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology: From Keyboard to Clinic

This paper describes the systems we developed for tasks A and B of the 2018 CLPsych shared task. The first task (task A) focuses on predicting behavioral health scores at age 11 using childhood essays. The second task (task B) asks participants to predict future psychological distress at ages 23, 33, 42, and 50 using the age 11 essays. We propose two convolutional neural network based methods that map each task to a regression problem. Among seven teams we ranked third on task A with disattenuated Pearson correlation (DPC) score of 0.5587. Likewise, we ranked third on task B with an average DPC score of 0.3062.