We study whether novel ideas in biomedical literature appear first in preprints or traditional journals. We develop a Bayesian method to estimate the time of appearance for a phrase in the literature, and apply it to a number of phrases, both automatically extracted and suggested by experts. We see that presently most phrases appear first in the traditional journals, but there is a number of phrases with the first appearance on preprint servers. A comparison of the general composition of texts from bioRxiv and traditional journals shows a growing trend of bioRxiv being predictive of traditional journals. We discuss the application of the method for related problems.
The deep inside-outside recursive autoencoder (DIORA; Drozdov et al. 2019) is a self-supervised neural model that learns to induce syntactic tree structures for input sentences *without access to labeled training data*. In this paper, we discover that while DIORA exhaustively encodes all possible binary trees of a sentence with a soft dynamic program, its vector averaging approach is locally greedy and cannot recover from errors when computing the highest scoring parse tree in bottom-up chart parsing. To fix this issue, we introduce S-DIORA, an improved variant of DIORA that encodes a single tree rather than a softly-weighted mixture of trees by employing a hard argmax operation and a beam at each cell in the chart. Our experiments show that through *fine-tuning* a pre-trained DIORA with our new algorithm, we improve the state of the art in *unsupervised* constituency parsing on the English WSJ Penn Treebank by 2.2-6% F1, depending on the data used for fine-tuning.
Understanding text often requires identifying meaningful constituent spans such as noun phrases and verb phrases. In this work, we show that we can effectively recover these types of labels using the learned phrase vectors from deep inside-outside recursive autoencoders (DIORA). Specifically, we cluster span representations to induce span labels. Additionally, we improve the model’s labeling accuracy by integrating latent code learning into the training procedure. We evaluate this approach empirically through unsupervised labeled constituency parsing. Our method outperforms ELMo and BERT on two versions of the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) dataset and is competitive to prior work that requires additional human annotations, improving over a previous state-of-the-art system that depends on ground-truth part-of-speech tags by 5 absolute F1 points (19% relative error reduction).
We introduce the deep inside-outside recursive autoencoder (DIORA), a fully-unsupervised method for discovering syntax that simultaneously learns representations for constituents within the induced tree. Our approach predicts each word in an input sentence conditioned on the rest of the sentence. During training we use dynamic programming to consider all possible binary trees over the sentence, and for inference we use the CKY algorithm to extract the highest scoring parse. DIORA outperforms previously reported results for unsupervised binary constituency parsing on the benchmark WSJ dataset.
Recent work on the problem of latent tree learning has made it possible to train neural networks that learn to both parse a sentence and use the resulting parse to interpret the sentence, all without exposure to ground-truth parse trees at training time. Surprisingly, these models often perform better at sentence understanding tasks than models that use parse trees from conventional parsers. This paper aims to investigate what these latent tree learning models learn. We replicate two such models in a shared codebase and find that (i) only one of these models outperforms conventional tree-structured models on sentence classification, (ii) its parsing strategies are not especially consistent across random restarts, (iii) the parses it produces tend to be shallower than standard Penn Treebank (PTB) parses, and (iv) they do not resemble those of PTB or any other semantic or syntactic formalism that the authors are aware of.