Other Workshops and Events (2003)


Contents

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bib (full) Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop on Analysis of Geographic References

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Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop on Analysis of Geographic References

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Experiments with geographic knowledge for information extraction
Dimitar Manov | Atanas Kiryakov | Borislav Popov | Kalina Bontcheva | Diana Maynard | Hamish Cunningham

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Pointing to places in a deductive geospatial theory
Richard Waldinger | Peter Jarvis | Jennifer Dungan

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Semi-supervised learning of geographical gazetteer from the internet
Olga Uryupina

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GeoName: a system for back-transliterating pinyin place names
Kui Lam Kwok | Qiang Deng

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Grounding spatial named entities for information extraction and question answering
Jochen L. Leidner | Gail Sinclair | Bonnie Webber

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InfoXtract location normalization: a hybrid approach to geographic references in information extraction
Huifeng Li | K. Rohini Srihari | Cheng Niu | Wei Li

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Bootstrapping toponym classifiers
David A. Smith | Gideon S. Mann

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A confidence-based framework for disambiguating geographic terms
Erik Rauch | Michael Bukatin | Kenneth Baker

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Geographic reference analysis for geographic document querying
Frédérik Bilhaut | Thierry Charnois | Patrice Enjalbert | Yann Mathet

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On building a high performance gazetteer database
Amittai Axelrod

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Defining and identifying the roles of geographic references within text
Humphrey Southall

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System Demo: A geo-coding service encompassing a geo-parsing tool and integrated digital gazetteer service
Ian Densham | James Reid


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bib (full) Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 03 Workshop on Building Educational Applications Using Natural Language Processing

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Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 03 Workshop on Building Educational Applications Using Natural Language Processing

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Utterance Classification in AutoTutor
Andrew Olney | Max Louwerse | Eric Matthews | Johanna Marineau | Heather Hite-Mitchell | Arthur Graesser

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Learning to Identify Student Preconceptions from Text
Adam Carlson | Steven L. Tanimoto

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Computer-Aided Generation of Multiple-Choice Tests
Ruslan Mitkov | Le An Ha

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PLASER: Pronunciation Learning via Automatic Speech Recognition
Brian Mak | Manhung Siu | Mimi Ng | Yik-Cheung Tam | Yu-Chung Chan | Kin-Wah Chan | Ka-Yee Leung | Simon Ho | Jimmy Wong | Jacqueline Lo

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A Comparison of Tutor and Student Behavior in Speech Versus Text Based Tutoring
Carolyn P. Rosé | Diane Litman | Dumisizwe Bhembe | Kate Forbes | Scott Silliman | Ramesh Srivastava | Kurt VanLehn

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Transforming Grammar Checking Technology into a Learning Environment for Second Language Writing
Ola Knutsson | Teresa Cerrato Pargman | Kerstin Severinson Eklundh

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Pasteur’s Quadrant: Computational Linguistics, LSA, and Education
Thomas Landauer

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Automatic Evaluation of Students’ Answers using Syntactically Enhanced LSA
Dharmendra Kanejiya | Arun Kumar | Surendra Prasad

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Automated Rating of ESL Essays
Deryle Lonsdale | Diane Strong-Krause

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A Hybrid Text Classification Approach for Analysis of Student Essays
Carolyn P. Rosé | Antonio Roque | Dumisizwe Bhembe | Kurt VanLehn


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bib (full) Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop on Building and Using Parallel Texts: Data Driven Machine Translation and Beyond

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Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop on Building and Using Parallel Texts: Data Driven Machine Translation and Beyond

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An Evaluation Exercise for Word Alignment
Rada Mihalcea | Ted Pedersen

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ProAlign: Shared Task System Description
Dekang Lin | Colin Cherry

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Word Alignment Based on Bilingual Bracketing
Bing Zhao | Stephan Vogel

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Statistical Translation Alignment with Compositionality Constraints
Michel Simard | Philippe Langlais

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Reducing Parameter Space for Word Alignment
Herve Dejean | Eric Gaussier | Cyril Goutte | Kenji Yamada

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Word Alignment Baselines
John C. Henderson

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Phrase-based Evaluation of Word-to-Word Alignments
Michael Carl | Sisay Fissaha

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TREQ-AL: A word alignment system with limited language resources
Dan Tufiş | Ana-Maria Barbu | Radu Ion

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The Duluth Word Alignment System
Bridget Thomson McInnes | Ted Pedersen

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Bootstrapping Parallel Corpora
Chris Callison-Burch | Miles Osborne

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Retrieving Meaning-equivalent Sentences for Example-based Rough Translation
Mitsuo Shimohata | Eiichiro Sumita | Yuji Matsumoto

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Word Selection for EBMT based on Monolingual Similarity and Translation Confidence
Eiji Aramaki | Sadao Kurohashi | Hideki Kashioka | Hideki Tanaka

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Translation Spotting for Translation Memories
Michel Simard

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Learning Sequence-to-Sequence Correspondences from Parallel Corpora via Sequential Pattern Mining
Kaoru Yamamoto | Taku Kudo | Yuta Tsuboi | Yuji Matsumoto

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Efficient Optimization for Bilingual Sentence Alignment Based on Linear Regression
Bing Zhao | Klaus Zechner | Stephen Vogel | Alex Waibel

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POS-Tagger for English-Vietnamese Bilingual Corpus
Dinh Dien | Hoang Kiem

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Acquisition of English-Chinese Transliterated Word Pairs from Parallel-Aligned Texts using a Statistical Machine Transliteration Model
Chun-Jen Lee | Jason S. Chang

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Input Sentence Splitting and Translating
Takao Doi | Eiichiro Sumita

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An LSA Implementation Against Parallel Texts in French and English
Katri A. Clodfelder

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Aligning and Using an English-Inuktitut Parallel Corpus
Joel Martin | Howard Johnson | Benoit Farley | Anna Maclachlan

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Comparing the Sentence Alignment Yield from Two News Corpora Using a Dictionary-Based Alignment System
Stephen Nightingale | Hideki Tanaka


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bib (full) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Natural Language Learning at HLT-NAACL 2003

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Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Natural Language Learning at HLT-NAACL 2003

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A model of syntactic disambiguation based on lexicalized grammars
Yusuke Miyao | Jun’ichi Tsujii

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An SVM-based voting algorithm with application to parse reranking
Libin Shen | Aravind K. Joshi

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Active learning for HPSG parse selection
Jason Baldridge | Miles Osborne

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Learning subjective nouns using extraction pattern bootstrapping
Ellen Riloff | Janyce Wiebe | Theresa Wilson

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Unsupervised Personal Name Disambiguation
Gideon Mann | David Yarowsky

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Unsupervised learning of word sense disambiguation rules by estimating an optimum iteration number in the EM algorithm
Hiroyuki Shinnou | Minoru Sasaki

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Bootstrapping POS-taggers using unlabelled data
Stephen Clark | James Curran | Miles Osborne

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Updating an NLP system to fit new domains: an empirical study on the sentence segmentation problem
Tong Zhang | Fred Damerau | David Johnson

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Exceptionality and Natural Language Learning
Mihai Rotaru | Diane J. Litman

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Semi-supervised Verb Class Discovery Using Noisy Features
Suzanne Stevenson | Eric Joanis

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Preposition Semantic Classification via Treebank and FrameNet
Tom O’Hara | Janyce Wiebe

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Phrasenet: towards context sensitive lexical semantics
Xin Li | Dan Roth | Yuancheng Tu

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Confidence estimation for translation prediction
Simona Gandrabur | George Foster

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Using ‘smart’ bilingual projection to feature-tag a monolingual dictionary
Katharina Probst

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Using LSA and Noun Coordination Information to Improve the Recall and Precision of Automatic Hyponymy Extraction
Scott Cederberg | Dominic Widdows

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An efficient clustering algorithm for class-based language models
Takuya Matsuzaki | Yusuke Miyao | Jun’ichi Tsujii

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Training a Naive Bayes Classifier via the EM Algorithm with a Class Distribution Constraint
Yoshimasa Tsuruoka | Jun’ichi Tsujii

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Identifying Events using Similarity and Context
Dominic R. Jones | Cynthia A. Thompson

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Introduction to the CoNLL-2003 Shared Task: Language-Independent Named Entity Recognition
Erik F. Tjong Kim Sang | Fien De Meulder

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Maximum Entropy Models for Named Entity Recognition
Oliver Bender | Franz Josef Och | Hermann Ney

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A Simple Named Entity Extractor using AdaBoost
Xavier Carreras | Lluís Màrquez | Lluís Padró

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Learning a Perceptron-Based Named Entity Chunker via Online Recognition Feedback
Xavier Carreras | Lluís Màrquez | Lluís Padró

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Named Entity Recognition with a Maximum Entropy Approach
Hai Leong Chieu | Hwee Tou Ng

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Language Independent NER using a Maximum Entropy Tagger
James Curran | Stephen Clark

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Named Entity Recognition through Classifier Combination
Radu Florian | Abe Ittycheriah | Hongyan Jing | Tong Zhang

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Named Entity Recognition with Long Short-Term Memory
James Hammerton

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Memory-based one-step named-entity recognition: Effects of seed list features, classifier stacking, and unannotated data
Iris Hendrickx | Antal van den Bosch

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Named Entity Recognition with Character-Level Models
Dan Klein | Joseph Smarr | Huy Nguyen | Christopher D. Manning

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Named Entity Recognition using Hundreds of Thousands of Features
James Mayfield | Paul McNamee | Christine Piatko

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Early results for Named Entity Recognition with Conditional Random Fields, Feature Induction and Web-Enhanced Lexicons
Andrew McCallum | Wei Li

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Meta-Learning Orthographic and Contextual Models for Language Independent Named Entity Recognition
Robert Munro | Daren Ler | Jon Patrick

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Named Entity Recognition Using a Character-based Probabilistic Approach
Casey Whitelaw | Jon Patrick

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A Stacked, Voted, Stacked Model for Named Entity Recognition
Dekai Wu | Grace Ngai | Marine Carpuat

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A Robust Risk Minimization based Named Entity Recognition System
Tong Zhang | David Johnson

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Memory-Based Named Entity Recognition using Unannotated Data
Fien De Meulder | Walter Daelemans



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bib (full) Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop on Learning Word Meaning from Non-Linguistic Data

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Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop on Learning Word Meaning from Non-Linguistic Data

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Word Sense Disambiguation with Pictures
Kobus Barnard | Matthew Johnson | David Forsyth

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Words and Pictures in the News
Jaety Edwards | Ryan White | David Forsyth

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Understanding Complex Visually Referring Utterances
Peter Gorniak | Deb Roy

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Towards a Framework for Learning Structured Shape Models from Text-Annotated Images
Sven Wachsmuth | Suzanne Stevenson | Sven Dickinson

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An Architecture for Word Learning using Bidirectional Multimodal Structural Alignment
Keith Bonawitz | Anthony Kim | Seth Tardiff

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Learning Word Meaning and Grammatical Constructions from Narrated Video Events
Peter Ford Dominey | Thomas Voegtlin

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EBLA: A Perceptually Grounded Model of Language Acquisition
Brian E. Pangburn | S. Sitharama Iyengar | Robert C. Mathews | Jonathan P. Ayo

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Why can’t José read? The problem of learning semantic associations in a robot environment
Peter Carbonetto | Nando de Freitas

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Grounding Word Meanings in Sensor Data: Dealing with Referential Uncertainty
Tim Oates

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Conversational Robots: Building Blocks for Grounding Word Meaning
Deb Roy | Kai-Yuh Hsiao | Nikolaos Mavridis

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Learning the Meaning and Usage of Time Phrases from a Parallel Text-Data Corpus
Ehud Reiter | Somayajulu Sripada

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Population Testing: Extracting Semantic Information On Near-Synonymy From Native Speakers
Ulla Vanhatalo | Hilary Chan

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Learning Word Meanings and Descriptive Parameter Spaces from Music
Brian Whitman | Deb Roy | Barry Vercoe



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bib (full) Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop on Software Engineering and Architecture of Language Technology Systems (SEALTS)

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Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop on Software Engineering and Architecture of Language Technology Systems (SEALTS)

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The Talent System: TEXTRACT Architecture and Data Model
Mary S. Neff | Roy J. Byrd | Branimir K. Boguraev

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WHAT: An XSLT-based Infrastructure for the Integration of Natural Language Processing Components
Ulrich Schäfer

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OLLIE: On-Line Learning for Information Extraction
Valentin Tablan | Kalina Bontcheva | Diana Maynard | Hamish Cunningham

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International Standard for a Linguistic Annotation Framework
Nancy Ide | Laurent Romary | Eric de la Clergerie

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Grid-Enabling Natural Language Engineering By Stealth
Baden Hughes | Steven Bird

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Blueprint for a High Performance NLP Infrastructure
James R. Curran

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Current Issues in Software Engineering for Natural Language Processing
Jochen Leidner

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InfoXtract: A Customizable Intermediate Level Information Extraction Engine
Rohini K. Srihari | Wei Li | Cheng Niu | Thomas Cornell

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Automatic Creation of Interface Specifications from Ontologies
Iryna Gurevych | Stefan Merten | Robert Porzel

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Accelerating Corporate Research in the Development, Application, and Deployment of Human Language Technologies
David Ferrucci | Adam Lally

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MULTIPLATFORM Testbed: An Integration Platform for Multimodal Dialog Systems
Gerd Herzog | Heinz Kirchmann | Stefan Merten | Alassane Ndiaye | Peter Poller

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SDLA Description Language for Building NLP Systems
Hans-Ulrich Krieger



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bib (full) Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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A Projection Extension Algorithm for Statistical Machine Translation
Christoph Tillmann

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Statistical Machine Translation Using Coercive Two-Level Syntactic Transduction
Charles Schafer | David Yarowsky

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Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling
Woosung Kim | Sanjeev Khudanpur

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Sentence Alignment for Monolingual Comparable Corpora
Regina Barzilay | Noemie Elhadad

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Antecedent Recovery: Experiments with a Trace Tagger
Péter Dienes | Amit Dubey

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Use of Deep Linguistic Features for the Recognition and Labeling of Semantic Arguments
John Chen | Owen Rambow

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Maximum Entropy Models for FrameNet Classification
Michael Fleischman | Namhee Kwon | Eduard Hovy

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Identifying Semantic Roles Using Combinatory Categorial Grammar
Daniel Gildea | Julia Hockenmaier

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Variation of Entropy and Parse Trees of Sentences as a Function of the Sentence Number
Dmitriy Genzel | Eugene Charniak

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A Plethora of Methods for Learning English Countability
Timothy Baldwin | Francis Bond

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A General Framework for Distributional Similarity
Julie Weeds | David Weir

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Using LTAG Based Features in Parse Reranking
Libin Shen | Anoop Sarkar | Aravind Joshi

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Log-Linear Models for Wide-Coverage CCG Parsing
Stephen Clark | James Curran

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Learning Extraction Patterns for Subjective Expressions
Ellen Riloff | Janyce Wiebe

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Bootstrapping Coreference Classifiers with Multiple Machine Learning Algorithms
Vincent Ng | Claire Cardie

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Statistical Acquisition of Content Selection Rules for Natural Language Generation
Pablo Ariel Duboue | Kathleen R. McKeown

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Towards Answering Opinion Questions: Separating Facts from Opinions and Identifying the Polarity of Opinion Sentences
Hong Yu | Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou

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Evaluation and Extension of Maximum Entropy Models with Inequality Constraints
Jun’ichi Kazama | Jun’ichi Tsujii

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Investigating Loss Functions and Optimization Methods for Discriminative Learning of Label Sequences
Yasemin Altun | Mark Johnson | Thomas Hofmann

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A Fast Algorithm for Feature Selection in Conditional Maximum Entropy Modeling
Yaqian Zhou | Fuliang Weng | Lide Wu | Hauke Schmidt

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Training Connectionist Models for the Structured Language Model
Peng Xu | Ahmad Emami | Frederick Jelinek

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Supersense Tagging of Unknown Nouns in WordNet
Massimiliano Ciaramita | Mark Johnson

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Using the Web in Machine Learning for Other-Anaphora Resolution
Natalia N. Modjeska | Katja Markert | Malvina Nissim

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Japanese Zero Pronoun Resolution based on Ranking Rules and Machine Learning
Hideki Isozaki | Tsutomu Hirao

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A Maximum Entropy Chinese Character-Based Parser
Xiaoqiang Luo

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HowtogetaChineseName(Entity): Segmentation and Combination Issues
Hongyan Jing | Radu Florian | Xiaoqiang Luo | Tong Zhang | Abraham Ittycheriah

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Virtual Examples for Text Classification with Support Vector Machines
Manabu Sassano

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Improved Automatic Keyword Extraction Given More Linguistic Knowledge
Anette Hulth


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bib (full) Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Information Retrieval with Asian Languages

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Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Information Retrieval with Asian Languages

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Improving Summarization Performance by Sentence Compression — A Pilot Study
Chin-Yew Lin

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A Practical Text Summarizer by Paragraph Extraction for Thai
Chuleerat Jaruskulchai | Canasai Kruengkrai

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An Approach for Combining Content-based and Collaborative Filters
Qing Li | Byeong Man Kim

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A Differential LSI Method for Document Classification
Liang Chen | Naoyuki Tokuda | Akira Nagai

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Poisson Naive Bayes for Text Classification with Feature Weighting
Sang-Bum Kim | Hee-Cheol Seo | Hae-Chang Rim

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Text Classification in Asian Languages without Word Segmentation
Fuchun Peng | Xiangji Huang | Dale Schuurmans | Shaojun Wang

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Feature Selection in Categorizing Procedural Expressions
Mineki Takechi | Takenobu Tokunaga | Yuji Matsumoto | Hozumi Tanaka

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Learning Bilingual Translations from Comparable Corpora to Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Hybrid Statistics-based and Linguistics-based Approach
Fatiha Sadat | Masatoshi Yoshikawa | Shunsuke Uemura

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BRIDJE over a Language Barrier: Cross-Language Information Access by Integrating Translation and Retrieval
Tetsuya Sakai | Makoto Koyama | Masaru Suzuki | Akira Kumano | Toshihiko Manabe

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Issues in Pre- and Post-translation Document Expansion: Untranslatable Cognates and Missegmented Words
Gina-Anne Levow

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Very Low Dimensional Latent Semantic Indexing for Local Query Regions
Yinghui Xu | Kyoji Umemura

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AnyQ: Answer Set based Information Retrieval System
Hyo-Jung Oh | Myung-Gil Jang | Moon-Soo Chang

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Dynamic Programming Matching for Large Scale Information Retrieval
Eiko Yamamoto | Masahiro Kishida | Yoshinori Takenami | Yoshiyuki Takeda | Kyoji Umemura

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Improving Document Clustering by Utilizing Meta-Data
Kam-Fai Wong | Nam-Kiu Chan | Kam-Lai Wong

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Temporal Ranking for Fresh Information Retrieval
Nobuyoshi Sato | Minoru Uehara | Yoshifumi Sakai

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Extraction of User Preferences from a Few Positive Documents
Byeong Man Kim | Qing Li | Jong Wan Kim

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Keyword-based Document Clustering
Seung-Shik Kang

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Text Categorization Using Automatically Acquired Domain Ontology
Shih-Hung Wu | Tzong-Han Tsai | Wen-Lian Hsu

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A Sentence Reduction using Syntax Control
Minh Le Nguyen | Susumu Horiguchi

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Cross-Language Information Retrieval Based on Category Matching Between Language Versions of a Web Directory
Fuminori Kimura | Akira Maeda | Masatoshi Yoshikawa | Shunsuke Uemura

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Korean Named Entity Recognition using HMM and CoTraining Model
Euisok Chung | Yi-Gyu Hwang | Myung-Gil Jang

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Question-Answering Based on Virtually Integrated Lexical Knowledge Base
Key-Sun Choi | Jae-Ho Kim | Masaru Miyazaki | Jun Goto | Yeun-Bae Kim


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bib (full) Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Multilingual Summarization and Question Answering

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Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Multilingual Summarization and Question Answering

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Question Answering via Bayesian Inference on Lexical Relations
Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Apurva Jadhav | Ashutosh Joshi | Soumen Chakrabarti | Pushpak Bhattacharyya

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Using Thematic Information in Statistical Headline Generation
Stephen Wan | Mark Dras | Cécile Paris | Robert Dale

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Combining Optimal Clustering and Hidden Markov Models for Extractive Summarization
Pascale Fung | Grace Ngai | Chi-Shun Cheung

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Evaluation of Features for Sentence Extraction on Different Types of Corpora
Chikashi Nobata | Satoshi Sekine | Hitoshi Isahara

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An Evolutionary Approach for Improving the Quality of Automatic Summaries
Constantin Orasan

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HITIQA: An Interactive Question Answering System: A Preliminary Report
Sharon Small | Ting Liu | Nobuyuki Shimizu | Tomek Strzalkowski

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Discovery of Manner Relations and Their Applicability to Question Answering
Roxana Girju | Manju Putcha | Dan Moldovan

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Question Classification using HDAG Kernel
Jun Suzuki | Hirotoshi Taira | Yutaka Sasaki | Eisaku Maeda

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Statistical QA - Classifier vs. Re-ranker: What’s the difference?
Deepak Ravichandran | Eduard Hovy | Franz Josef Och

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Automatic Detection of Causal Relations for Question Answering
Roxana Girju

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Question Answering on a Case Insensitive Corpus
Wei Li | Rohini Srihari | Cheng Niu | Xiaoge Li


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bib (full) Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Natural Language Processing in Biomedicine

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Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Natural Language Processing in Biomedicine

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Gene Name Extraction Using FlyBase Resources
Alex Morgan | Lynette Hirschman | Alexander Yeh | Marc Colosimo

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Unsupervised Monolingual and Bilingual Word-Sense Disambiguation of Medical Documents using UMLS
Dominic Widdows | Stanley Peters | Scott Cederberg | Chiu-Ki Chan | Diana Steffen | Paul Buitelaar

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Using Domain-Specific Verbs for Term Classification
Irena Spasic | Goran Nenadic | Sophia Ananiadou

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Enhancing Performance of Protein Name Recognizers Using Collocation
Wen-Juan Hou | Hsin-Hsi Chen

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Two-Phase Biomedical NE Recognition based on SVMs
Ki-Joong Lee | Young-Sook Hwang | Hae-Chang Rim

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Boosting Precision and Recall of Dictionary-Based Protein Name Recognition
Yoshimasa Tsuruoka | Jun’ichi Tsujii

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Effective Adaptation of Hidden Markov Model-based Named Entity Recognizer for Biomedical Domain
Dan Shen | Jie Zhang | Guodong Zhou | Jian Su | Chew-Lim Tan

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Bio-Medical Entity Extraction using Support Vector Machines
Koichi Takeuchi | Nigel Collier

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Protein Name Tagging for Biomedical Annotation in Text
Kaoru Yamamoto | Taku Kudo | Akihiko Konagaya | Yuji Matsumoto

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Answering Clinical Questions with Role Identification
Yun Niu | Graeme Hirst | Gregory McArthur | Patricia Rodriguez-Gianolli

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Extracting Information on Pneumonia in Infants Using Natural Language Processing of Radiology Reports
Eneida A. Mendonca | Janet Haas | Lyudmila Shagina | Elaine Larson | Carol Friedman

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Identification of Patients with Congestive Heart Failure using a Binary Classifier: A Case Study.
Serguei V. Pakhomov | James Buntrock | Christopher G. Chute

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Encoding Biomedical Resources in TEI: The Case of the GENIA Corpus
Tomaz Erjavec | Jin-Dong Kim | Tomoko Ohta | Yuka Tateisi | Jun’ichi Tsujii

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Exploring Adjectival Modification in Biomedical Discourse Across Two Genres
Olivier Bodenreider | Serguei V. Pakhomov

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An Investigation of Various Information Sources for Classifying Biological names
Manabu Torii | Sachin Kamboj | K. Vijay-Shanker

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Selecting Text Features for Gene Name Classification: from Documents to Terms
Goran Nenadic | Simon Rice | Irena Spasic | Sophia Ananiadou | Benjamin Stapley




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bib (full) Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Paraphrasing

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Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Paraphrasing

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Generation of Single-sentence Paraphrases from Predicate/Argument Structure using Lexico-grammatical Resources
Raymond Kozlowski | Kathleen F. McCoy | K. Vijay-Shanker

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Text Simplification for Reading Assistance: A Project Note
Kentaro Inui | Atsushi Fujita | Tetsuro Takahashi | Ryu Iida | Tomoya Iwakura

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Preferential Presentation of Japanese Near-synonyms using Definition Statements
Hiroyuki Okamoto | Kengo Sato | Hiroaki Saito

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Exploiting Paraphrases in a Question Answering System
Fabio Rinaldi | James Dowdall | Kaarel Kaljurand | Michael Hess | Diego Mollá

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Interrogative Reformulation Patterns and Acquisition of Question Paraphrases
Noriko Tomuro

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Normalization and Paraphrasing Using Symbolic Methods
Caroline Brun | Caroline Hagège

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Criterion for Judging Request Intention in Response Texts of Open-Ended Questionnaires
Hiroko Inui | Masao Utiyama | Hitoshi Isahara

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Extracting Structural Paraphrases from Aligned Monolingual Corpora
Ali Ibrahim | Boris Katz | Jimmy Lin

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Paraphrase Acquisition for Information Extraction
Yusuke Shinyama | Satoshi Sekine

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Optimizing Synonym Extraction Using Monolingual and Bilingual Resources
Hua Wu | Ming Zhou

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Paraphrasing Japanese Noun Phrases using Character-based Indexing
Takenobu Tokunaga | Hozumi Tanaka | Kenji Kimura

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Paraphrasing Rules for Automatic Evaluation of Translation into Japanese
Hiroshi Kanayama

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Lexical Paraphrasing for Document Retrieval and Node Identification
Ingrid Zukerman | Sarah George | Yingying Wen


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bib (full) Proceedings of the Second SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing

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Proceedings of the Second SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing

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Unsupervised Training for Overlapping Ambiguity Resolution in Chinese Word Segmentation
Mu Li | Jianfeng Gao | Chang-Ning Huang | Jianfeng Li

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Class Based Sense Definition Model for Word Sense Tagging and Disambiguation
Tracy Lin | Jason S. Chang

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Utterance Segmentation Using Combined Approach Based on Bi-directional N-gram and Maximum Entropy
Ding Liu | Chengqing Zong

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Two-Character Chinese Word Extraction Based on Hybrid of Internal and Contextual Measures
Shengfen Luo | Maosong Sun

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A Bottom-up Merging Algorithm for Chinese Unknown Word Extraction
Wei-Yun Ma | Keh-Jiann Chen

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The Effect of Rhythm on Structural Disambiguation in Chinese
Honglin Sun | Dan Jurafsky

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Annotating the Propositions in the Penn Chinese Treebank
Nianwen Xue | Martha Palmer

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CHINERS: A Chinese Named Entity Recognition System for the Sports Domain
Tianfang Yao | Wei Ding | Gregor Erbach

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Chinese Lexical Analysis Using Hierarchical Hidden Markov Model
Hua-Ping Zhang | Qun Liu | Xue-Qi Cheng | Hao Zhang | Hong-Kui Yu

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Modeling of Long Distance Context Dependency in Chinese
GuoDong Zhou

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A Chinese Efficient Analyser Integrating Word Segmentation, Part-Of-Speech Tagging, Partial Parsing and Full Parsing
GuoDong Zhou | Jian Su

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Building a Large Chinese Corpus Annotated with Semantic Dependency
Mingqin Li | Juanzi Li | Zhendong Dong | Zuoying Wang | Dajin Lu

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News-Oriented Automatic Chinese Keyword Indexing
Sujian Li | Houfeng Wang | Shiwen Yu | Chengsheng Xin

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Semantic Maps for Word Alignment in Bilingual Parallel Corpora
Qing Ma | Yujie Zhang | Masaki Murata | Hitoshi Isahara

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Abductive Explanation-based Learning Improves Parsing Accuracy and Efficiency
Oliver Streiter

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The semantic Knowledge-base of Contemporary Chinese and Its Applications in WSD
Hui Wang | Shiwen Yu

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Learning Verb-Noun Relations to Improve Parsing
Andi Wu

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Single Character Chinese Named Entity Recognition
Xiaodan Zhu | Mu Li | Jianfeng Gao | Chang-Ning Huang

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The First International Chinese Word Segmentation Bakeoff
Richard Sproat | Thomas Emerson

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Combining Segmenter and Chunker for Chinese Word Segmentation
Masayuki Asahara | Chooi Ling Goh | Xiaojie Wang | Yuji Matsumoto

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Chinese Word Segmentation Using Minimal Linguistic Knowledge
Aitao Chen

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Chinese Word Segmentation at Peking University
Huiming Duan | Xiaojing Bai | Baobao Chang | Shiwen Yu

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A Two-stage Statistical Word Segmentation System for Chinese
Guohong Fu | Kang-Kwong Luke

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Integrating Ngram Model and Case-based Learning for Chinese Word Segmentation
Chunyu Kit | Zhiming Xu | Jonathan J. Webster

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A Unicode Based Adaptive Segmentor
Q. Lu | S. T. Chan | R. F. Xu | T. S. Chiu | B. L. Li | S. W. Yu

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Introduction to CKIP Chinese Word Segmentation System for the First International Chinese Word Segmentation Bakeoff
Wei-Yun Ma | Keh-Jiann Chen

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Chinese Word Segmentation in MSR-NLP
Andi Wu

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Chinese Word Segmentation as LMR Tagging
Nianwen Xue | Libin Shen

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SYSTRAN’s Chinese Word Segmentation
Jin Yang | Jean Senellart | Remi Zajac

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HHMM-based Chinese Lexical Analyzer ICTCLAS
Hua-Ping Zhang | Hong-Kui Yu | De-Yi Xiong | Qun Liu

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Chunking-based Chinese Word Tokenization
GuoDong Zhou


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bib (full) Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Multiword Expressions: Analysis, Acquisition and Treatment

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Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Multiword Expressions: Analysis, Acquisition and Treatment

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Complex Structuring of Term Variants for Question Answering
James Dowdall | Fabio Rinaldi | Fidelia Ibekwe-SanJuan | Eric SanJuan

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Conceptual Structuring through Term Variations
Béatrice Daille

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Noun-Noun Compound Machine Translation A Feasibility Study on Shallow Processing
Takaaki Tanaka | Timothy Baldwin

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Using Masks, Suffix Array-based Data Structures and Multidimensional Arrays to Compute Positional Ngram Statistics from Corpora
Alexandre Gil | Gaël Dias

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A Language Model Approach to Keyphrase Extraction
Takashi Tomokiyo | Matthew Hurst

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Multiword Unit Hybrid Extraction
Gaël Dias

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Extracting Multiword Expressions with A Semantic Tagger
Scott S. L. Piao | Paul Rayson | Dawn Archer | Andrew Wilson | Tony McEnery

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Verb-Particle Constructions and Lexical Resources
Aline Villavicencio

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A Statistical Approach to the Semantics of Verb-Particles
Colin Bannard | Timothy Baldwin | Alex Lascarides

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Detecting a Continuum of Compositionality in Phrasal Verbs
Diana McCarthy | Bill Keller | John Carroll

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A Disambiguation Method for Japanese Compound Verbs
Kiyoko Uchiyama | Shun Ishizaki

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An Empirical Model of Multiword Expression Decomposability
Timothy Baldwin | Colin Bannard | Takaaki Tanaka | Dominic Widdows

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Licensing Complex Prepositions via Lexical Constraints
Beata Trawinski




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bib (full) Proceedings of the Fourth SIGdial Workshop of Discourse and Dialogue

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Proceedings of the Fourth SIGdial Workshop of Discourse and Dialogue

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Understanding Information Graphics: A Discourse-Level Problem
Sandra Carberry | Stephanie Elzer | Nancy Green | Kathleen McCoy | Daniel Chester

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Annotating Opinions in the World Press
Theresa Wilson | Janyce Wiebe

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Answering Clarification Questions
Matthew Purver | Patrick G.T. Healey | James King | Jonathan Ginzburg | Greg J. Mills

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An Information-theoretic Approach for Argument Interpretation
Sarah George | Ingrid Zukerman

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Conversational inferences: the hard way and the easy way
Yukiko Kawaguchi

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The interpretation of non-sentential utterances in dialogue
David Schlangen | Alex Lascarides

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Flexible Spoken Dialogue System based on User Models and Dynamic Generation of VoiceXML Scripts
Kazunori Komatani | Fumihiro Adachi | Shinichi Ueno | Tatsuya Kawahara | Hiroshi G. Okuno

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Building a New Internet Chat System for Sharing Timing Information
Kanayo Ogura | Takeshi Masuda | Masato Ishizaki

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Interpreter for Highly Portable Spoken Dialogue System
Masamitsu Umeda | Satoru Kogure | Seiichi Nakagawa

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Spoken Dialogue for Virtual Advisers in a semi-immersive Command and Control environment
Dominique Estival | Michael Broughton | Andrew Zschorn | Elizabeth Pronger

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Using Wizard-of-Oz simulations to bootstrap Reinforcement - Learning based dialog management systems
Jason D. Williams | Steve Young

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Example-based Spoken Dialogue System using WOZ System Log
Hiroya Murao | Nobuo Kawaguchi | Shigeki Matsubara | Yukiko Yamaguchi | Yasuyoshi Inagaki

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Some empirical findings on dialogue management and domain ontologies in dialogue systems - Implications from an evaluation of BirdQuest
Annika Flycht-Eriksson | Arne Jönsson

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Managing Dialogue Interaction: A Multi-Layered Approach
Oliver Lemon | Lawrence Cavedon | Barbara Kelly

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Ontology-based Contextual Coherence Scoring
Robert Porzel | Iryna Gurevych | Christof E. Müller

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An Annotation Tool for Multimodal Dialogue Corpora using Global Document Annotation
Kazunari Ito | Hiroaki Saito

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Multi-Level Annotation in MMAX
Christoph Müller | Michael Strube

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Domain Specific Speech Acts for Spoken Language Translation
Lori Levin | Chad Langley | Alon Lavie | Donna Gates | Dorcas Wallace | Kay Peterson

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Turn-taking in Graphical Communication: an exploratory study
Atsue Takeoka | Atsushi Shimojima | Yasuhiro Katagiri

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PALinkA: A highly customisable tool for discourse annotation
Constantin Orăsan

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Speaker-independent context update rules for dialogue management
Samson de Jager | Nick Wright | Alistair Knott

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A Method for Forming Mutual Beliefs for Communication through Human-robot Multi-modal Interaction
Naoto Iwahashi

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DIPPER: Description and Formalisation of an Information-State Update Dialogue System Architecture
Johan Bos | Ewan Klein | Oliver Lemon | Tetsushi Oka

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Learning to Speak to a Spoken Language System: Vocabulary Convergence in Novice Users
Gina-Anne Levow

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A procedure assistant for astronauts in a functional programming architecture, with step previewing and spoken correction of dialogue moves
Gregory Aist | Manny Rayner | John Dowding | Beth Ann Hockey | Susana Early | Jim Hieronymus

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Dialog Input Ranking in a Multi-Domain Environment Using Transferable Belief Model
Hong-I Ng | Kim-Teng Lua

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Annotating emotion in dialogue
Richard Craggs | Mary McGee Wood

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Developing a Typology of Dialogue Acts: Some Boundary Problems
Tiit Hennoste | Mare Koit | Andriela Rääbis | Krista Strandson | Maret Valdisoo | Evely Vutt



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Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-2003) at EACL 2003

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Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-2003) at EACL 2003

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Dynamic Generation of Cooperative Natural Language Responses in WEBCOOP
Farah Benamara | Patrick Saint Dizier

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Restricting the rhetorical input for the non-hierarchical planning of document structures
Nadjet Bouayad-Agha

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Multilingual Revision
Charles Callaway

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Learning to Order Facts for Discourse Planning in Natural Language Generation
Aggeliki Dimitromanolaki | Ion Androutsopoulos

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Corpus-analysis for NLG
Sabine Geldof

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Handling Dependencies in Reorganizing Content Specifications A Case Study of Case Analysis
Helmut Horacek

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A New Model for Generating Multimodal Referring Expressions
Emiel Krahmer | Ielka van der Sluis

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Applied NLG system evaluation: FlexyCAT
Nestor Miliaev | Alison Cawsey | Greg Michaelson

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Phrasal Generator for Describing Relational Database Queries
Michael J. Minock

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Porting to an Italian Surface Realizer: A Case Study
Alessandra Novello | Charles B. Callaway

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Incremental Generation by Incremental Parsing: Tactical Generation in Dynamic Syntax
Matthew Purver | Masayuki Otsuka

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Acquiring and Using Limited User Models in NLG
Ehud Reiter | Somayajulu Sripada | Sandra Williams

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Generation of Video Documentaries from Discourse Structures
Cesare Rocchi | Massimo Zancanaro

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Preserving Discourse Structure when Simplifying Text
Advaith Siddharthan

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Deriving the Communicative Structure in Applied NLG
Leo Wanner | Bernd Bohnet | Mark Giereth

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Adapting Chart Realization to CCG
Michael White | Jason Baldridge

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Experiments with discourse-level choices and readability
Sandra Williams | Ehud Reiter | Liesl Osman

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Author Index


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bib (full) Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on Linguistically Interpreted Corpora (LINC-03) at EACL 2003

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Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on Linguistically Interpreted Corpora (LINC-03) at EACL 2003

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The PARC 700 Dependency Bank
Tracy Holloway King | Richard Crouch | Stefan Riezler | Mary Dalrymple | Ronald M. Kaplan

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Issues in the Syntactic Annotation of Cast3LB
Montserrat Civit | Ma. Antònia Martí | Borja Navarro | Núria Bufí | Belén Fernández | Raquel Marcos

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Practical Annotation Scheme for an HPSG Treebank of Bulgarian
Kiril Simov | Petya Osenova

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Treebank Conversion - Establishing a testsuite for a broad-coverage LFG from the TIGER treebank
Martin Forst

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The Annotation Process in the Turkish Treebank
Nart B. Atalay | Kemal Oflazer | Bilge Say

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Automatic Multi-Layer Corpus Annotation for Evaluation Question Answering Methods: CBC4Kids
Jochen L. Leidner | Tiphaine Dalmas | Bonnie Webber | Johan Bos | Claire Grover

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Text as Binary Sequence: A Case of Characteristic Constant of Text
Petar Milin | Nada Ilic

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Open Mind Word Expert: Creating Large Annotated Data Collections with Web Users’ Help
Rada Mihalcea | Timothy Chklovski

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Limits to annotation precision
Geoffrey Sampson | Anna Babarczy

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Which bridges for bridging definite descriptions?
Claire Gardent | Hélène Manuélian | Eric Kow

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Step by step: underspecified markup in incremental rhetorical analysis
David Reitter | Manfred Stede

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Exploitation of an SFL-annotated multilingual register corpus
Stella Neumann

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The Spoken Dutch Corpus and its Exploitation Environment
Nelleke Oostdijk | Daan Broeder

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CGN, an annotated corpus of spoken Dutch
Ineke Schuurman | Machteld Schouppe | Heleen Hoekstra | Ton van der Wouden

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The Unberable Lightness of Tagging* A Case Study in Morphosyntactic Tagging of Polish
Adam Przepiórkowski | Marcin Woliński

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Stretching TEI: Converting the Genia Corpus
Tomaz Erjavec | Jin-Dong Kim | Tomoko Ohta | Yuka Tateisi | Jun-ichi Tsujii

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The MetaGrammar: a cross-framework and cross-language test-suite generation tool
Alexandra Kinyon | Owen Rambow

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Author Index




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bib (full) Proceedings of the 2003 EACL Workshop on Dialogue Systems: interaction, adaptation and styes of management

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Proceedings of the 2003 EACL Workshop on Dialogue Systems: interaction, adaptation and styes of management

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Introduction: Dialogue Systems: Interaction, Adaptation and Styles of Management
Kristiina Jokinen | Björn Gämback | William Black | Roberta Catizone | Yorick Wilks

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Why a Static Interpretation Is Not Sufficient in Spatial Communication
John A. Bateman | Kerstin Fischer | Thora Tenbrink

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Learning to Classify Utterances in a Task-Oriented Dialogue
William Black | Paul Thompson | Adam Funk | Andrew Conroy

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Flexibility and Efficiency through Personalisation? Experiments with a conversational Program Guide Information System
Péter Boda | Suresh Chande | Elviira Hartikainen | Nidhi Gupta | Sirpa Autere

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Multimodal Dialogue Management in the COMIC Project
Roberta Catizone | Andrea Setzer | Yorick Wilks

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Policies and Procedure for Spoken Dialogue Systems
Matthias Denecke

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Automating Hinting in Mathematical Tutorial Dialogue
Armin Fiedler | Dimitra Tsovaltzi

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Distributed Dialogue Management in a Blackboard Architecture
Antti Kerminen | Kristiina Jokinen

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Multi-Level Architecture for Natural Activity-Oriented Dialogue
Oliver Lemon | Lawrence Cavedon

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Machine Learning for Shallow Interpretation of User Utterances in Spoken Dialogue Systems
Piroska Lendvai | Antal van den Bosch | Emiel Krahmer

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The Interactive Navigation to the Stored Q&A data using Simple Questions
Kunio Matsui | Hozumi Tanaka

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An Agent Design for Effective Negotiation Dialogues
Bryan McEleney | Gregory O’Hare

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SesaME: A Framework for Personalised and Adaptive Speech Interfaces
Botond Pakucs

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A Constructive View of Discourse Operators
Allan Ramsay | Helen Gaylard

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Generic Dialogue Structure for Vocal Access to Indexed Databases
Christophe Dupriez | Mélanie Roland

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Author Index




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bib (full) Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Parsing Technologies

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Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Parsing Technologies

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Parsing Tree Adjoining Grammars and Tree Insertion Grammars with Simultaneous Adjunctions
Miguel A. Alonso | Víctor J. Díaz

A large part of wide coverage Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAG) is formed by trees that satisfy the restrictions imposed by Tree Insertion Grammars (TIG). This characteristic can be used to reduce the practical complexity of TAG parsing, applying the standard adjunction operation only in those cases in which the simpler cubic-time TIG adjunction cannot be applied. In this paper, we describe a parsing algorithm managing simultaneous adjunctions in TAG and TIG.

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Implémentation du système MASPAR selon une approche multi-agent
Chafik Aloulou | Lamia Hadrich Belguith | Ahmed Hadj Kacem | Souha Hammami Mezghani

Le traitement automatique du langage naturel est un axe de recherche qui connaît chaque jour de nouvelles théories et approches. Les systèmes d’analyse automatique qui sont fondés sur une approche séquentielle présentent plusieurs inconvénients. Afin de pallier ces limites, nous nous sommes intéressés à la réalisation d’un système d’analyse syntaxique de textes arabes basé sur l’approche multi-agent : MASPAR « Multi-Agent System for Parsing ARabic ».

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Incremental Parsing Of Lambek Calculus Using Proof-Net Interfaces
Denis Béchet

The paper describes an incremental parsing algorithm for natural languages that uses normalized interfaces of modules of proof-nets. This algorithm produces at each step the different possible partial syntactical analyses of the first words of a sentence. Thus, it can analyze texts on the fly leaving partially analyzed sentences.

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Meta-Level Contstraints for Linguistic Domain Interaction
Philippe Blache

This paper presents a technique for the representation and the implementation of interaction relations between different domains of linguistic analysis. This solution relies on the localization of the linguistic objects in the context. The relations are then implemented by means of interaction constraints, each domain information being expressed independently.

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Guided Earley Parsing
Pierre Boullier

In this paper, we present a method which may speed up Earley parsers in practice. A first pass called a guiding parser builds an intermediate structure called a guide which is used by a second pass, an Earley parser, called a guided parser whose Predictor phase is slightly modified in such a way that it selects an initial item only if this item is in the guide. This approach is validated by practical experiments preformed on a large test set with an English context-free grammar.

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Supertagging: A Non-Statistical Parsing-Based Approach
Pierre Boullier

We present a novel approach to supertagging w.r.t. some lexicalized grammar G. It differs from previous approaches in several ways:- These supertaggers rely only on structural information: they do not need any training phase;- These supertaggers do not compute the “best“ supertag for each word, but rather a set of supertags. These sets of supertags do not exclude any supertag that will eventually be used in a valid complete derivation (i.e., we have a recall score of 100%);- These supertaggers are in fact true parsers which accept supersets of L(G) that can be more efficiently parsed than the sentences of L(G).

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Parsing Strategies for the Integration of Two Stochastic Context-Free Grammars
Anna Corazza

Integration of two stochastic context-free grammars can be useful in two pass approaches used, for example, in speech recognition and understanding. Based on an algorithm proposed by [Nederhof and Satta, 2002] for the non-probabilistic case, left-to-right strategies for the search for the best solution based on CKY and Earley parsers are discussed. The restriction that one of the two grammars must be non recursive does not represent a problem in the considered applications.

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Visual Language Editors based on LR Parsing Techniques
Gennaro Costagliola | Vincenzo Deufemia

Visual language editors should provide a user-friendly environment where users are supported in an effective way in the construction of visual sentences. In this paper, we propose an approach for the construction of syntax-directed visual language editors by integrating incremental parsers into freehand editors. The approach combines the LR-based techniques for parsing visual languages with the more general incremental Generalized LR parsing techniques developed for string languages.

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Subtree Parsing to Speed up Deep Analysis
Kilian Foth | Wolfgang Menzel

Within a grammar formalism that treats syntax analysis as a global optimization problem, methods are investigated to improve parsing performance by recombining the solutions of smaller and easier subproblems. The robust nature of the formalism allows the application of this technique with little change to the original grammar.

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Constraint relaxation with weighted feature structures
Frederik Fouvry

In this paper, we present a definition of unification of weighted feature structures designed to deal with constraint relaxation. The application of phrase structure rules in a unification-based Natural Language Processing system is adapted such that inconsistent values do not lead to failure, but are penalised. These penalties are based on the signature and the shape of the feature structures, and thus realise an elegant and general approach to relaxation.

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Generative versus Discriminative Models for Statistical Left-Corner Parsing
James Henderson

We propose two statistical left-corner parsers and investigate their accuracy at varying speeds. The parser based on a generative probability model achieves state-of-the-art accuracy when sufficient time is available, but when high speed is required the parser based on a discriminative probability model performs better. Neural network probability estimation is used to handle conditioning on both the unbounded parse histories and the unbounded lookahead strings.

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PACE — Parser Comparison and Evaluation
Vladimir Kadlec | Pavel Smrz

The paper introduces PACE — a parser comparison and evaluation system for the syntactic processing of natural languages. The analysis is based on context free grammar with contextual extensions (constraints). The system is able to manage very large and extremely ambiguous CF grammars. It is independent of the parsing algorithm used. The tool can solve the contextual constraints on the resulting CF structure, select the best parsing trees according to their probabilities, or combine them. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of our modular design as well as how efficiently it processes the standard evaluation grammars.

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GLR Parser with Conditional Action Model using Surface Phrasal Types for Korean
Yong-Jae Kwak | So-Young Park | Hae-Chang Rim

In this paper, we propose a new probabilistic GLR parsing method that can solve the problems of conventional methods. Our proposed Conditional Action Model uses Surface Phrasal Types (SPTs) encoding the functional word sequences of the sub-trees for describing structural characteristics of the partial parse. And, the proposed GLR model outperforms the previous methods by about 6~8%.

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Parsing Domain Actions with Phrase-Level Grammars and Memory-Based Learners
Chad Langley | Alon Lavie

In this paper, we describe an approach to analysis for spoken language translation that combines phrase-level grammar-based parsing and automatic domain action classification. The job of the analyzer is to transform utterances into a shallow semantic task-oriented interlingua representation. The goal of our hybrid approach is to provide accurate real-time analyses and to improve robustness and portability to new domains and languages.

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Intelligent Parsing in Natural Language Processing
Sanghamitra Mohanty | Rakesh Chandra Balabantaray

Parser does the part of speech (POS) identification in a sentence, which is required for Machine Translation (MT). An intelligent parser is a parser, which takes care of semantics along with the POS in a sentence. Use of such intelligent parser will reduce the complexity in semantics during MT apriori.

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Probabilistic Parsing as Intersection
Mark-Jan Nederhof | Giorgio Satta

We show that a well-known algorithm to compute the intersection of a context-fre language and a regular language can be extended to apply to a probabilistic context-free grammar and a probabilistic finite automaton, provided the two probabilistic models are combined through multiplication. The result is a probabilistic context-free grammar that contains joint information about the original grammar and automaton.

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An Efficient Algorithm for Projective Dependency Parsing
Joakim Nivre

This paper presents a deterministic parsing algorithm for projective dependency grammar. The running time of the algorithm is linear in the length of the input string, and the dependency graph produced is guaranteed to be projective and acyclic. The algorithm has been experimentally evaluated in parsing unrestricted Swedish text, achieving an accuracy above 85% with a very simple grammar.

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Dependency parsing using dependency graph for storing alternative structures
Tomasz Obrebski

In this paper an efficient algorithm for dependency parsing is described in which ambiguous dependency structure of a sentence is represented in the form of a graph. The idea of the algorithm is shortly outlined and some issues as to its time complexity are discussed.

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Combining Rule-based and Data-driven Techniques for Grammatical Relation Extraction in Spoken Language
Kenji Sagae | Alon Lavie

We investigate an aspect of the relationship between parsing and corpus-based methods in NLP that has received relatively little attention: coverage augmentation in rule-based parsers. In the specific task of determining grammatical relations (such as subjects and objects) in transcribed spoken language, we show that a combination of rule-based and corpus-based approaches, where a rule-based system is used as the teacher (or an automatic data annotator) to a corpus-based system, outperforms either system in isolation.

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Partially Ordered Multiset Context-free Grammars and Free-word-order Parsing
Mark-Jan Nederhof | Giorgio Satta | Stuart Shieber

We present a new formalism, partially ordered multiset context-free grammars (poms-CFG), along with an Earley-style parsing algorithm. The formalism, which can be thought of as a generalization of context-free grammars with partially ordered right-hand sides, is of interest in its own right, and also as infrastructure for obtaining tighter complexity bounds for more expressive context-free formalisms intended to express free or multiple word-order, such as ID/LP grammars. We reduce ID/LP grammars to poms-grammars, thereby getting finer-grained bounds on the parsing complexity of ID/LP grammars. We argue that in practice, the width of attested ID/LP grammars is small, yielding effectively polynomial time complexity for ID/LP grammar parsing.

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On maximizing metrics for syntactic disambiguation
Khalil Sima’an

Given a probabilistic parsing model and an evaluation metric for scoring the match between parse-trees, e.g., PARSEVAL [Black et al., 1991], this paper addresses the problem of how to select the on average best scoring parse-tree for an input sentence. Common wisdom dictates that it is optimal to select the parse with the highest probability, regardless of the evaluation metric. In contrast, the Maximizing Metrics (MM) method [Goodman, 1998, Stolcke et al., 1997] proposes that an algorithm that optimizes the evaluation metric itself constitutes the optimal choice. We study the MM method within parsing. We observe that the MM does not always hold for tree-bank models, and that optimizing weak metrics is not interesting for semantic processing. Subsequently, we state an alternative proposition: the optimal algorithm must maximize the metric that scores parse-trees according to linguistically relevant features. We present new algorithms that optimize metrics that take into account increasingly more linguistic features, and exhibit experiments in support of our claim.

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Automatic Acquistion of Constraints for Efficient Korean Parsing
So-Young Park | Yong-Jae Kwak | Hoo-Jung Chung | Young-Sook Hwang | Hae-Chang Rim

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Statistical Dependency Analysis with Support Vector Machines
Hiroyasu Yamada | Yuji Matsumoto

In this paper, we propose a method for analyzing word-word dependencies using deterministic bottom-up manner using Support Vector machines. We experimented with dependency trees converted from Penn treebank data, and achieved over 90% accuracy of word-word dependency. Though the result is little worse than the most up-to-date phrase structure based parsers, it looks satisfactorily accurate considering that our parser uses no information from phrase structures.