Temporal Tagging on Different Domains: Challenges, Strategies, and Gold Standards

Jannik Strötgen, Michael Gertz


Abstract
In the last years, temporal tagging has received increasing attention in the area of natural language processing. However, most of the research so far concentrated on processing news documents. Only recently, two temporal annotated corpora of narrative-style documents were developed, and it was shown that a domain shift results in significant challenges for temporal tagging. Thus, a temporal tagger should be aware of the domain associated with documents that are to be processed and apply domain-specific strategies for extracting and normalizing temporal expressions. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of temporal expressions in different domains. In addition to news- and narrative-style documents, we add two further document types, namely colloquial and scientific documents. After discussing the challenges of temporal tagging on the different domains, we describe some strategies to tackle these challenges and describe their integration into our publicly available temporal tagger HeidelTime. Our cross-domain evaluation validates the benefits of domain-sensitive temporal tagging. Furthermore, we make available two new temporally annotated corpora and a new version of HeidelTime, which now distinguishes between four document domain types.
Anthology ID:
L12-1219
Volume:
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)
Month:
May
Year:
2012
Address:
Istanbul, Turkey
Venue:
LREC
SIG:
Publisher:
European Language Resources Association (ELRA)
Note:
Pages:
3746–3753
Language:
URL:
http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2012/pdf/425_Paper.pdf
DOI:
Bib Export formats:
BibTeX MODS XML EndNote
PDF:
http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2012/pdf/425_Paper.pdf