AbstractAnnotation of digitized pages from historical document collections is very important to research on automatic extraction of text blocks, lines, and handwriting recognition. We have recently introduced a new handwritten text database, GERMANA, which is based on a Spanish manuscript from 1891. To our knowledge, GERMANA is the first publicly available database mostly written in Spanish and comparable in size to standard databases. In this paper, we present another handwritten text database, RODRIGO, completely written in Spanish and comparable in size to GERMANA. However, RODRIGO comes from a much older manuscript, from 1545, where the typical difficult characteristics of historical documents are more evident. In particular, the writing style, which has clear Gothic influences, is significantly more complex than that of GERMANA. We also provide baseline results of handwriting recognition for reference in future studies, using standard techniques and tools for preprocessing, feature extraction, HMM-based image modelling, and language modelling.