Reasoning Over Paragraph Effects in Situations

Kevin Lin, Oyvind Tafjord, Peter Clark, Matt Gardner


Abstract
A key component of successfully reading a passage of text is the ability to apply knowledge gained from the passage to a new situation. In order to facilitate progress on this kind of reading, we present ROPES, a challenging benchmark for reading comprehension targeting Reasoning Over Paragraph Effects in Situations. We target expository language describing causes and effects (e.g., “animal pollinators increase efficiency of fertilization in flowers”), as they have clear implications for new situations. A system is presented a background passage containing at least one of these relations, a novel situation that uses this background, and questions that require reasoning about effects of the relationships in the background passage in the context of the situation. We collect background passages from science textbooks and Wikipedia that contain such phenomena, and ask crowd workers to author situations, questions, and answers, resulting in a 14,322 question dataset. We analyze the challenges of this task and evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art reading comprehension models. The best model performs only slightly better than randomly guessing an answer of the correct type, at 61.6% F1, well below the human performance of 89.0%.
Anthology ID:
D19-5808
Volume:
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering
Month:
November
Year:
2019
Address:
Hong Kong, China
Venues:
EMNLP | WS
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
58–62
Language:
URL:
https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/D19-5808
DOI:
10.18653/v1/D19-5808
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http://aclanthology.lst.uni-saarland.de/D19-5808.pdf
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